Home » [NEW] Present Perfect Continuous Tense | they – NATAVIGUIDES

[NEW] Present Perfect Continuous Tense | they – NATAVIGUIDES

they: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

Present Perfect Continuous

The Present Perfect Continuous uses two auxiliary verbs together with a main verb.

In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the Present Perfect Continuous tense, as well as the use of for and since, followed by a quiz to check your understanding.

Note that continuous tenses are also called progressive tenses. So the Present Perfect Continuous tense is sometimes called the Present Perfect Progressive tense.

How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous tense?

The structure of the Present Perfect Continuous tense is:

auxiliary have
auxiliary be
main verb

conjugated in Present Simple

past participle


have, has
present participle

The first auxiliary (have) is conjugated in the Present Simple: have, has

The second auxiliary (be) is invariable in past participle form: been

The main verb is invariable in present participle form: -ing

For negative sentences we insert not after the first auxiliary verb.

For question sentences, we exchange the subject and first auxiliary verb.

Look at these example sentences with the Present Perfect Continuous tense:

auxiliary verb
auxiliary verb
main verb

for one hour.

too much.




their homework?

Contraction with Present Perfect Continuous

When we use the Present Perfect Continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I have been
I’ve been

You have been
You’ve been

He has been
She has been
It has been
John has been
The car has been
He’s been
She’s been
It’s been
John’s been
The car’s been

We have been
We’ve been

They have been
They’ve been

  • I’ve been reading.
  • Jenny’s been helping us recently.

In negative sentences, we may contract the first auxiliary verb and “not”:

  • I haven’t been playing tennis.
  • It hasn’t been snowing.

How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous tense?

This tense is called the Present Perfect Continuous tense. There is usually a connection with the present or now.

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about:

  • past action recently-stopped
  • past action still-continuing

Present Perfect Continuous for past action just stopped

We use the Present Perfect Continuous tense to talk about action that started in the past and stopped recently. There is usually a result now.

I’m tired because I‘ve been running.



Recent action
Result now

  • I’m tired [now] because I‘ve been running.
  • Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining?
  • You don’t understand [now] because you haven’t been listening.

Present Perfect Continuous for past action continuing now

We use the Present Perfect Continuous tense to talk about action that started in the past and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since.

I have been reading for 2 hours.



Action started in past.
Action is continuing now.

  • I have been reading for 2 hours. (I am still reading now.)
  • We‘ve been studying since 9 o’clock. (We’re still studying now.)
  • How long have you been learning English? (You are still learning now.)
  • We have not been smoking. (And we are not smoking now.)
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For and Since with Present Perfect Continuous tense

We often use for and since with perfect tenses:

  • We use for to talk about a period of time: three hours, two months, one decade
  • We use since to talk about a point in past time: 9 o’clock, 1st January, Monday


a period of time
a point in past time
– – – – – – – – – – – –
– • – – – – – – – – – –

30 minutes

four days

3 months

2 years

3 centuries

I left school

the beginning of time


Look at these example sentences using for and since with the Present Perfect Continuous tense:

  • I have been studying for three hours.
  • I have been watching TV since 7pm.
  • Tara hasn’t been feeling well for two weeks.
  • Tara hasn’t been visiting us since March.
  • He has been playing football for a long time.
  • He has been living in Bangkok since he left school.

For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.

Back to 12 English Tenses

[NEW] They’re Made out of Meat | they – NATAVIGUIDES

They’re Made out of Meat

Terry Bisson, 1991

Someone did a radio play of this…

“They’re made out of meat.”


“Meat. They’re made out of meat.”


“There’s no doubt about it. We picked several from different parts of the planet, took them aboard our recon vessels, probed them all the way through. They’re completely meat.”

  “That’s impossible. What about the radio signals? The messages to the stars.”

“They use the radio waves to talk, but the signals don’t come from them. The signals come from machines.”

  “So who made the machines? That’s who we want to contact.”

“They made the machines. That’s what I’m trying to tell you. Meat made the machines.”

  “That’s ridiculous. How can meat make a machine? You’re asking me to believe in sentient meat.”

“I’m not asking you, I’m telling you. These creatures are the only sentient race in the sector and they’re made out of meat.”

  “Maybe they’re like the Orfolei. You know, a carbon-based intelligence that goes through a meat stage.”

“Nope. They’re born meat and they die meat. We studied them for several of their life spans, which didn’t take too long. Do you have any idea the life span of meat?”

  “Spare me. Okay, maybe they’re only part meat. You know, like the Weddilei. A meat head with an electron plasma brain inside.”

“Nope. We thought of that, since they do have meat heads like the Weddilei. But I told you, we probed them. They’re meat all the way through.”

  “No brain?”

“Oh, there is a brain all right. It’s just that the brain is made out of meat!”

  “So… what does the thinking?”

“You’re not understanding, are you? The brain does the thinking. The meat.”

  “Thinking meat! You’re asking me to believe in thinking meat!”

“Yes, thinking meat! Conscious meat! Loving meat. Dreaming meat. The meat is the whole deal! Are you getting the picture?”

  “Omigod. You’re serious then. They’re made out of meat.”

“Finally, Yes. They are indeed made out meat. And they’ve been trying to get in touch with us for almost a hundred of their years.”

  “So what does the meat have in mind.”

“First it wants to talk to us. Then I imagine it wants to explore the universe, contact other sentients, swap ideas and information. The usual.”

  “We’re supposed to talk to meat?”

“That’s the idea. That’s the message they’re sending out by radio. ‘Hello. Anyone out there? Anyone home?’ That sort of thing.”

  “They actually do talk, then. They use words, ideas, concepts?”

“Oh, yes. Except they do it with meat.”

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  “I thought you just told me they used radio.”

“They do, but what do you think is on the radio? Meat sounds. You know how when you slap or flap meat it makes a noise? They talk by flapping their meat at each other. They can even sing by squirting air through their meat.”

  “Omigod. Singing meat. This is altogether too much. So what do you advise?”

“Officially or unofficially?”


“Officially, we are required to contact, welcome, and log in any and all sentient races or multibeings in the quadrant, without prejudice, fear, or favor. Unofficially, I advise that we erase the records and forget the whole thing.”

  “I was hoping you would say that.”

“It seems harsh, but there is a limit. Do we really want to make contact with meat?”

  “I agree one hundred percent. What’s there to say?” `Hello, meat. How’s it going?’ But will this work? How many planets are we dealing with here?”

“Just one. They can travel to other planets in special meat containers, but they can’t live on them. And being meat, they only travel through C space. Which limits them to the speed of light and makes the possibility of their ever making contact pretty slim. Infinitesimal, in fact.”

  “So we just pretend there’s no one home in the universe.”

“That’s it.”

  “Cruel. But you said it yourself, who wants to meet meat? And the ones who have been aboard our vessels, the ones you have probed? You’re sure they won’t remember?”

“They’ll be considered crackpots if they do. We went into their heads and smoothed out their meat so that we’re just a dream to them.”

  “A dream to meat! How strangely appropriate, that we should be meat’s dream.”

“And we can marked this sector unoccupied.”

  “Good. Agreed, officially and unofficially. Case closed. Any others? Anyone interesting on that side of the galaxy?”

“Yes, a rather shy but sweet hydrogen core cluster intelligence in a class nine star in G445 zone. Was in contact two galactic rotation ago, wants to be friendly again.”

  “They always come around.”

“And why not? Imagine how unbearably, how unutterably cold the universe would be if one were all alone.”

When they give you a ring even tho you don’t cook or clean… #Shorts

When they give you a ring even tho you don’t cook or clean… Shorts
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When they give you a ring even tho you don't cook or clean... #Shorts

NFTs Are Fueling a Boom in Digital Art. Here’s How They Work | WSJ

Nonfungible tokens, or NFTs, have exploded onto the digital art scene this past year. Proponents say they are a way to make digital assets scarce, and therefore more valuable. WSJ explains how they work, and why skeptics question whether they’re built to last. Photo Illustration: Jacob Reynolds/WSJ
These Cryptocurrencies Make Owning Memes Possible
WSJ Glossary
Markets and economics are complex. It’s easy to be overwhelmed by a sea of wonky indicators and lose track of why they matter. This series breaks down the basic terms and ideas that move the markets.
More from the Wall Street Journal:
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WSJ NFTs WSJGlossary

NFTs Are Fueling a Boom in Digital Art. Here’s How They Work | WSJ

If PKers enter this cave, they die.

Install Blitz: Rise of Heroes https://clcr.me/blitz_Framed and get two epic heroes Sigurd and GalDzuk
Dharok bombing PKers at 1 HP when the least expect it.
Best of Framed Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sgSuGPdI3M\u0026list=PLmp8z18d1XBAIy0Hlp5B2oN8YhUnyT1Mg\u0026index=13
Framed’s 2nd Channel: https://www.youtube.com/c/KevinsCorner
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/KFramed
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kev.framed/
Twitch: http://www.twitch.tv/Framed
OSRS Soundtrack
Song remixes By ShowMeYourBenitals: https://www.youtube.com/c/ShowMeYourBenitals
0:00 1 Hit PKing
1:48 Blitz: Rise of Heroes
2:49 1 Hitting Continues
11:43 Outro
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If PKers enter this cave, they die.

Why don’t they teach Newton’s calculus of ‘What comes next?’

Another long one. Obviously not for the faint of heart 🙂 Anyway, this one is about the beautiful discrete counterpart of calculus, the calculus of sequences or the calculus of differences. Pretty much like in Alice’s Wonderland things are strangely familiar and yet very different in this alternate reality calculus.
Featuring the NewtonGregory interpolation formula, a powerful what comes next oracle, and some very offthebeaten track spottings of some alltime favourites such as the Fibonacci sequence, Pascal’s triangle and Maclaurin series.
00:00 Intro
05:16 Derivative = difference
08:37 What’s the difference
16:03 The Master formula
18:19 What’s next is silly
22:05 Gregory Newton works for everything
28:15 Integral = Sum
32:52 Differential equation = Difference equation
36:06 Summary and real world application
39:22 Proof
Here is a very nice writeup by David Gleich with a particular focus on the use of falling powers. https://tinyurl.com/ymcyrapz
This is a nice lesson from a Coursera course on this topic https://www.coursera.org/lecture/discretecalculus/differencesk4jBq
One volume of Schaum’s outlines is dedicated to \”The calculus of finite differences and difference equations\” (by Murray R. Spiegel) Examples galore!
This is a really nice very old book Calculus Of Finite Differences by George Boole (published in 1860!) https://tinyurl.com/3bdjr932 Thanks to Ian Robertson for recommending this one.
There is a wiki page about our mystery sequence: https://tinyurl.com/uwc89yub It’s got a proof for why the mystery sequence counts the maximal numbers of regions cut by those cutting lines. If you have access to the book \”The book of Numbers\” by John Conway and Richard Guy, it’s got the best proof I am aware of.
Here is a sketch of how you solve the Fibonacci difference equation to find Binet’s formula https://imgur.com/a/Btu5ZVk
Here are a couple more beautiful gems that I did not get around to mentioning:
1. When we evaluate the GN formula for 2^n what we are really doing is adding the entries in the nth row of Pascal’s triangle (which starts with a 0th row 🙂 And, of course, adding these entries really gives 2^n.
2. Evaluating the GF formula for 2^n at n= 1 gives 11+11+… which diverges but whose Cesaro sum is 2^(1)=1/2!! Something similar happens for n=2.
3. In the proof at the end we also show that the difference of n choose m is n choose m1. This implies immediately that the difference of the mth falling power is m times the difference of the m1st falling power.
Today’s music is by \”I promise\” by Ian Post.\r
P.S.: Some typos and bloopers
https://youtu.be/4AuV93LOPcE?t=719 (396 should be 369)
https://youtu.be/4AuV93LOPcE?t=1709 (where did the 5 go?)
https://youtu.be/4AuV93LOPcE?t=2448 (a new kind of math(s) 🙂

Why don't they teach Newton's calculus of 'What comes next?'

Why people believe they can’t draw – and how to prove they can | Graham Shaw | TEDxHull

Why is it that so many people think they can’t draw? Where did we learn to believe that? Graham Shaw will shatter this illusion – quite literally in a very practical way. He’ll demonstrate how the simple act of drawing has the power to make a positive difference in the world.
Graham specialises in the art of communication and has helped thousands of people to make important presentations. He is perhaps best known for his use of fast cartoon drawings to communicate ideas and is the author of ‘The Art of Business Communication’.
This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx

Why people believe they can’t draw - and how to prove they can | Graham Shaw | TEDxHull

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