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[NEW] ELT Concourse: reporting verbs in EAP | reporting verb – NATAVIGUIDES

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Reporting verbs in EAP

This guide is not to do with reported or indirect speech and will
not cover the simpler reporting verbs such as say, tell,
exclaim, ask, enquire etc.  For a guide to those matters
click here
for the guide to indirect speech in general English.
What follows assumes that the rules for reporting direct speech are familiar.
The following is most relevant to formal academic writing although
the concepts are generalisable.  It is, therefore, of most
interest to people teaching EAP (English for Academic Purposes).

Why is this important?

Consider this:

Even the most
original academic paper integrates facts, ideas, concepts, and
theories from other sources by means of quotations, paraphrases,
summaries, and brief references.
(Campbell 1990, in Jordan, 1997:171)

It is unlikely, but not impossible, that learners of English for
Academic Purposes will be producing the most original academic
paper so the ability to insert summaries, paraphrases and citation
appropriately, using the right reporting verb, is a key writing
skill.  Not least, of course, to avoid any whiff of plagiarism. 
Understanding the implications of reporting verbs is also a key
reading skill to identify slant and angle.

Reporting verbs can be classified and presented in a number of
ways and we can also, as we shall see, combine elements of the
analysis to make the area accessible to learners.

Classifying reporting verbs: attitude

Reporting verbs are subtle but powerful signals of the writer’s
attitude to the message being sent by a paraphrase or citation.
Compare, for example:
    Guru states that …
   
Guru presumes that …
   
Guru claims that …
   
Guru suggests that …
   
Guru mentions that …
   
Guru hypothesises that …

One way to classify such verbs is to arrange them on a cline from
tentative, through neutral to assertive.  Something like this:

 

There are obvious problems with this, not least that opinions may
differ concerning the exact connotation each verb carries.
Such a classification does, however, have some classroom utility
because it alerts learners to the connotations that the verbs carry
and may help them avoid inappropriate choices.

Classifying reporting verbs: function

Reporting verbs are used for a range of communicative functions. 
Presenting them from this standpoint, we can get something like:

This sort of presentation and analysis sits well with a
communicative approach because it focuses clearly on the
communicative value of the verbs.

However, one obvious problem is that some verbs can be synonyms
and some can perform multiple functions.  There is not a great
deal of difference in meaning between, e.g.:
    Guru proposes that we …
and
    Guru suggests that we …
However, suggest is also polysemous in a way that
propose is not so we can also have:
    The data suggest that …
but not
    *The data propose that …
Another obvious issue is that the diagram ignores the strength
of the reporting verbs and may allow learners to believe that all
the verbs in each category carry the same connotations.  As we
saw above, that is not the case.

Classifying reporting verbs: form

The final way to classify these verbs in this guide is by
grammatical and lexical form.  We need to look at concepts of
collocation and colligation here, especially the latter.  This
might result in this kind of analysis:

but there are problems with that, too, some colligational, some
collocational:

  1. Transitivity
    1. Some verbs in the lists are both transitive and
      intransitive.  We can have
          Guru concedes the point that …
         
      Guru concedes that …
         
      Guru questions the conclusion
         
      Guru questions whether …
         
      Guru proposes a solution
         
      Guru proposes that …
    2. Some verbs are only intransitive.  We can have:
         
      Guru observes that …
      but not
          *Guru observes the conclusion that …
      or
          *Guru theorises a solution
    3. Some verbs are only transitive.  We can have:
          Guru recommends a solution
      and
          Guru recommends that …
      but not
          *Guru discounts that …
      or
          *Guru discusses that …
  2. Appropriacy of subject:
    Some of these verbs will collocate with inanimate
    subjects, some with animate only and some with both.

    1. Animate subjects can be used for most of them but some
      can also take inanimate subjects.  We can have, e.g.,
          The study shows …
         
      Guru shows …
         
      The evidence indicates …
         
      Guru indicates …
      etc.
    2. Some may only have animate subjects.  We can have:
          Guru hypothesises …
         
      Guru maintains …
      but not
          *The evidence comments …
          *The data say …
          *The evidence states …
      or
         
      *The facts allege …
    3. Some are

      open to metaphorical use,
      assigning an action to an inanimate subject normally
      reserved for people (pathetic
      fallacy):
          The study argues …
         
      The facts imply …
         
      The findings argue for …
      and some are not:
          *The evidence describes …
         
      *The findings believe …

  3. Omitting that
    The theoretical distinction here is between what are called
    bridge verbs and non-bridge verbs.  Many simple reporting
    verbs

    such as say, tell, think, know, write, claim
    and hear are bridge verbs and it is perfectly in order
    to omit the word that when they are followed by a
    clause so we allow both:
        He said that the results are
    unsatisfactory
        Guru thinks that the solution is to …
        She claims that the analysis is flawed
    etc. and:
        He said the results are unsatisfactory
        Guru thinks the solution is to …
        She claims the analysis is flawed
    Many find (that) the sentences without that are
    more stylistically acceptable.
    However, in academic writing simple verbs like these are often
    avoided for the sake of style or precision as we have seen above
    and with the less frequently used verbs, sometimes called
    non-bridge verbs, omitting that often results in some
    clumsiness.  All of the following, for example:
        Guru confirms the results are reliable
        He acknowledge the experiment was flawed
        The findings indicate there is a need for …
        She explains findings are provisional
    are better expressed with that retained as in:
        Guru confirms that the results are reliable
        He acknowledge that the experiment was flawed
        The findings indicate that there is a need for …
        She explains that findings are provisional

Combining the analyses

We can weave aspects of all three analyses together to produce
quite sophisticated analysis.  For example, if we combine
attitude with function we can produce something like:

and we can do similar things with many of the other functions.
It is also possible to combine functional and formal analyses:

It is even possible to go one step further and combine all three
analyses but, at that stage, the data start to get impenetrable.

Tense, aspect and voice

Reporting verbs are frequently used in the present simple so that
is not difficult to teach.  Perversely, some lists of reporting
verbs put all of them in the present simple 3rd person which is
misleading at best.  Two other tenses are also frequently used
and multiple authorship is common.  Here are examples of all
three:

  1. Present simple
    This is the most frequent form:
        Guru notes that …
       
    The data imply …
       
    In that paper, Guru and Mentor propose …
  2. Past simple
    This is frequently used for sources which
    are older and have become seminal authorities in some way. 
    For example:
        Guru (1949) identified …
  3. Present perfect
    This is used a) when the writer needs
    to emphasise the present relevance of a source or b) when the
    sources are varied and (sometimes) not individually identified. 
    It is often used in the passive voice but need not be.  For
    example:
        It has been noted (Guru, 2016) that …
       
    Guru (2010) has discovered that …
       
    Guru and Mentor (2000) investigated the structure of these
    complex substances and have shown that they are …
       
    It has often been asserted that …
  4. Passive clauses and the dummy it
    There are time when the writer may wish to disguise the
    source of a statement, when the statement needs no reference or
    when the source is unknown or so ubiquitous in the field that
    citing individual authors would be too cumbersome.
    In these cases, a passive construction (usually in the present
    simple or perfect) and a dummy it come to the rescue as
    in, e.g.:
        It has been established that …
        It is reckoned that …
        It has often been noted that …
    and so on.
    Sometimes, the source is included in such constructions as in,
    e.g.:
        It has been shown (Guru, 1998, Mentor,
    1999 and others) that …
    In the last case, the by-phrase conventionally used to
    indicate the agent is unnecessary because it is implied by the
    citations in brackets.
    The dummy it is often avoided, too, especially when the
    patient of a passive clause is inanimate so we may encounter,
    for example:
        The results have been disputed in the
    literature
        The search for a solution has, until now, been abandoned as

        Many reasons are suggested, including, for example, …
        The law has been criticised as being …
        This proposal has been rejected as …
    and so on.
    (There are two short exercises in the learners’ section of this
    site on using passive reporting verbs. 

    Click here
    to open the index in a new tab.)

Teaching and learning issues

Here’s an incomplete list of 160 of the verbs commonly used
to report the work of others in academic writing.  It is
unclassified by any of the three analyses considered above but a
classified version is available from the next link.

accept
acknowledge
add
admit
advise
advocate
affirm
agree
alert
allege
allow
analyse
announce
appraise
argue
articulate
assert
assess
assume
assure

attack
aver
believe
blame
cast doubt on
challenge
characterise
claim
clarify
classify
comment
concede
conclude
concur
confirm
congratulate
consider
contend
contradict
contribute

counter
criticise
critique
debate
decide
declare
defend
define
demonstrate
deny
depict
describe
determine
develop
disagree
disapprove
discard
disclaim
discount
discover

discuss
dismiss
disprove
disregard
doubt
emphasise
encourage
endorse
estimate
evaluate
examine
explain
explore
express
fault
feel
find
forbid
forget
forgive

guarantee
guess
highlight
hold
hope
hypothesise
identify
illustrate
imagine
imply
indicate
infer
inform
inquire
insist
interpret
intimate
investigate
justify
know

list
maintain
mention
note
object (to)
observe
oppose
outline
persuade
point out
portray
posit
postulate
praise
predict
present
profess
promise
propose
protest

prove
provoke
put forward
query
question
realise
reason
rebuff
recognise
recommend
refer
refute
reject
remark
remind
report
restate
reveal
say
scrutinise

show
speculate
state
stress
study
substantiate
suggest
support
suppose
suspect
take into consideration
take issue with
tell
theorise
think
throw light on
underline
understand
urge

This list is also available
as a PDF document for reference.

Clearly, presenting learners with a list like this is not going
to be a very productive approach.  Somehow we have to help our
learners eat the elephant so a piecemeal approach is the only
practical way forward.

Before you can begin, you need to make a selection of the
reporting verbs which will form the target of a teaching sequence. 
This site can’t do that for you because there are some variables to
consider first:

  • Level:
    • At lower levels, it may be adequate to focus on a short
      list of frequently used neutral verbs.  This might
      include, e.g.:
          state, mention, discuss, comment, show, suggest
      etc.
    • At higher levels, your learners need to start learning
      about the attitudes that verb-use implies so the list can
      start to extend to verbs like:
          question, intimate, assert, demonstrate, discount,
      hypothesise etc.
    • Later yet, learners need to be alert to degrees of
      assertion and argumentation so the list gets extended again
      to include, e.g.:
          maintain, portray, take issue with, profess, presume
      and so on.
  • Register:
    • Within the natural sciences, certain reporting verbs are
      more frequently found.  Often, they have inanimate
      subjects such as data, experimental investigation,
      observations and so on.  Verbs commonly used with
      inanimate subjects might include:
          reveal, show, suggest, demonstrate, explain, confirm,
      (dis)prove etc.
      so these become the targets for learners in those
      disciplines
    • within the social sciences, more tentative verbs are
      frequent and they come with animate subjects so verbs like:
          propose, suggest, imply, interpret, posit, postulate
      etc.
      are more useful targets.
  • Colligation:
    It makes sense to introduce and practise those verbs which share
    colligational characteristics so, for example, one could focus
    on those verbs which are normally followed by that-clauses
    and separately on those which are followed by noun phrases.
    Focusing on those which are prepositional is also an option.
    Transitivity is something to bear in mind, too.
    See the diagram above for examples of all of these.
  • Function:
    A logical approach is to decide first what the author of a text
    is actually doing with the language and then to select a
    reporting verb from a list categorised by function.
    The list which follows will have to be edited in accordance with
    the learners’ level of knowledge and needs but, once they have
    identified what the author of a citation is actually trying to
    achieve, there is need only for a focus on one set of verbs.
    Helpfully, the verbs are classified on this site in that
    way and you can get the list in a PDF format to select from by clicking

    here
    .
    The list looks like this:

    ADDING
    ADVISING
    AGREEING
    EMPHASISING
    ANALYSING
    EXPLAINING

    add
    augment
    complement
    contribute
    develop
    refer
    reinforce
    restate
    strengthen
    substantiate
    support
    take into consideration
    verify

    advise
    advocate
    caution
    counsel
    encourage
    persuade
    propose
    recommend
    suggest
    urge
    warn

    accept
    acknowledge
    accede
    admit
    affirm
    agree
    allow
    concede
    concur
    confirm
    endorse
    recognise

    alert
    congratulate
    emphasise
    forbid
    guarantee
    highlight
    point out
    promise
    remind
    stress
    underline

    appraise
    assess
    consider
    criticise
    critique
    defend
    dismiss
    disregard
    estimate
    evaluate
    forgive
    ignore
    justify
    praise
    prove

    clarify
    depict
    describe
    designate
    express
    explain
    explicate
    illustrate
    interpret
    portray
    reveal
    show
    term
    throw light on

    DISAGREEING

    BELIEVING

    DISCUSSING

    PRESENTING

    QUESTIONING

    SUGGESTING

    attack
    challenge
    contend
    contradict
    counter
    deny
    disagree
    disapprove
    discard
    disclaim
    discount
    disprove
    forget
    object (to)
    oppose
    protest
    rebuff
    refute
    reject
    take issue with

    argue
    assert
    assume
    aver
    believe
    claim
    consider
    decide
    declare
    feel
    hold
    infer
    insist
    maintain
    profess
    profess
    realise
    say
    think
    understand

    analyse
    argue
    characterise
    classify
    debate
    depict
    describe
    discuss
    examine
    explore
    investigate
    observe
    outline
    note
    reason
    remark
    scrutinise

    announce
    articulate
    assure
    comment
    conclude
    define
    demonstrate
    determine
    discover
    express
    find
    identify
    inform
    list
    mention
    present
    put forward
    report
    state
    study
    tell

    blame
    cast doubt on
    challenge
    contest
    dispute
    distrust
    doubt
    fault
    have reservations
    have doubts
    inquire
    point out
    query
    question

    allege
    conjecture
    deduce
    guess
    hope
    hypothesise
    imagine
    imply
    indicate
    intimate
    posit
    postulate
    predict
    provoke
    speculate
    suggest
    suppose
    surmise
    suspect
    theorise

Approach

You can approach the verbs from any of the three analyses above
by considering attitude, function and form separately.  A
combined approach is often productive providing the
number of target verbs is limited and carefully selected.

For example:

  1. Start with a shortlist of verbs which function to state what
    an author believes (say, hold, assert, believe, claim,
    declare, maintain etc.) and introduce them in context to
    show the colligations (see above for that).  At lower
    levels, some focus on tense, aspect and voice is appropriate at
    this stage.
  2. Move on to presenting them on a cline from tentative,
    through neutral to assertive (see above).
  3. Then, once the function, form and meaning are clear,
    learners can proceed to practising them.  A simple way to
    do that is to present a text which only uses a simple verb like
    say and get learners to replace the verb with something
    more appropriate.  It could look something like this:

    Jones (1964:20)

    says

    that … and

    says

    it is important to … but Smith (1990:85)

    says

    that this is
    not true and he

    says

    work by Robinson (1990)

    says

    that

    More recently, Smith now

    says

    that what the study

    said

    was not
    fully correct.  He now

    says

    that what Jones

    said

    is
    important.

    could become something like:

    Jones (1964:20)

    asserts

    that … and

    emphasises that

    it is important to … but Smith (1990:85)

    avers

    that this is
    not true and he

    points out
    that

    work by Robinson (1990)

    reveals

    that

    More recently, Smith now

    concedes

    that what the study

    showed

    was not
    fully correct.  He now

    allows

    that what Jones

    noted

    is
    important.

  4. Finally, the learners can move on to writing or improving
    their own texts using the limited range you have introduced.
  5. The procedure can be duplicated with another target function
    and set of verbs until the learners are able to deploy a wide
    range of reporting verbs accurately, with attitudinal awareness
    and for functions they can clearly identify.

Related guides

reported or indirect speech
the general guide to the area

verbal processes
for a general guide to what verbs do

verb types and clause structures
for a guide to understanding verbs and
their structures

EAP index
for links to other guides in the
area

Reference:
Campbell, in Jordan, RR, 1997, English for Academic Purposes,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

[Update] Reporting Verbs Là Gì – Câu Tường Thuật (Reported Speech) Trong Tiếng Anh | reporting verb – NATAVIGUIDES

Câu tường thuật (Reported Speech) là một loại câu được dùng khi người nào đó muốn thuật lại lời nói của một người khác.

Trong cuộc sống hàng ngày bạn sử dụng rất nhiều dạng câu tường thuật để kể lại lời nói của một người khác, dưới dạng dán tiếp. Chính vì vậy cấu trúc của loại câu này là rất quan trọng để bạn có thể sử dụng thành thạo tiếng anh. Bài viết này Ms Hoa Giao Tiếp sẽ cùng bạn học về cấu trúc và cách sử dụng câu tường thuật (reported Speech) chuẩn và chính xác nhé.

Đang xem: Reporting verbs là gì

*

I. Câu tường thuật (Reported Speech) là gì?

Reported Speech hay còn gọi là câu tường thuật, câu gián tiếp, được sử dụng để thuật lại lời nói trực tiếp của một người khác.

*

Khi chuyển từ một lời nói trực tiếp sang gián tiếp chúng ta cần lưu ý một số vấn đề sau:

1/ Nếu động từ tường thuật (reporting verb) chia ở các thì hiện tại chúng ta giữ nguyên thì (tense) của động từ chính, đại từ chỉ định và các trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn cũng như trạng từ chỉ thời gian trong câu trực tiếp khi chuyển sang gián tiếp.

Ví dụ: He says: “I’m going to Ha Noi next week.” ⇒ He says he is going to Ha Noi next week.

2/ Nếu động từ tường thuật (reporting verb) của câu ở thì quá khứ thì phải lùi động từ chính về quá khứ một bậc khi chuyển từ lời nói trực tiếp (direct speech) sang lời nói gián tiếp (indirect / reported speech) theo quy tắc sau:

Lời nói trực tiếp

Lời nói gián tiếp

will / shall

would / should

am / is / are going to

was / were going to

present simple 

past simple

present continuous

past continuous

past continuous

past perfect continuous

present perfect

past perfect

past simple

past perfect

must 

had to

can

could

Ví dụ: Direct speech: “I’ll talk to Mr Jones,” said he. Reported speech: He said he would talk to Mr Jones.

Một số động từ không thay đổi khi chuyển sang lời nói gián tiếp : would => would, could => could, might => might, should => should, ought to => ought to

Khi chuyển từ lời nói trực tiếp sang gián tiếp mà động từ tường thuật ở thì quá khứ thì các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn và đại từ chỉ định được chuyển đổi theo quy tắc sau:

Lời nói trực tiếp

 Lời nói gián tiếp

today

that day

tonight

that night

tomorrow 

the next day / the following day

yesterday

the day before / the previous day

ago

before

now

then

next / on Tuesday

the next / following Tuesday

last Tuesday

the previous Tuesday / the Tuesday before

the day after tomorrow

in two days’ time / two days later

this 

that

these

those

this / that 

the

here

there

Ví dụ:  Direct speech: “I’m leaving here tomorrow,” said Mary. Reported speech:  Mary said (that) she was leaving there the next day.

* Nguyên tắc trên được áp dụng cho tất các các loại câu tường thuật.

II. Các loại câu tường thuật cơ bản:

1/ Reported statements: 

Cấu trúc câu: S + say(s) / said + (that) + S + V

says / say to + O => tells / tell + O said to + O => told + O

 

Ví dụ: – He said to me: “I haven’t finished my work.” š He told me he hadn’t finished his work.

2/ Reported questions:

A. Yes / No questions:

Câu tường thuật loại câu hỏi Có hay Không (Yes / No questions) có dạng sau:

S +

asked (+ O)wanted to know wondered

+ if / whether + S + V.

Ví dụ:

“Are you angry?” he asked.He asked if / whether I was angry.

“Did you see the film?” Tam asked.Tam asked if / whether I had seen the film.

* Lưu ý: Khi tường thuật câu hỏi Có hay Không (Yes – No questions), ta phải chuyển câu hỏi trực tiếp sang dạng khẳng định, rồi thực hiện thay đổi thì, trạng từ chỉ thời gian, trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn, đại từ chỉ định, và chủ ngữ, tân ngữ, đại từ sở hữu cho phù hợp.

* says / say to + O => asks / ask + O said to + O => asked + O

Ví dụ: He said to me: “Have you been to America?” š He asked me if / whether I had been to America.

B. Wh-questions:

S +

asked (+ O)wanted to know wondered

+ Wh-words + S + V.

Ví dụ: They asked us: “Where are you going on holiday?” š They asked us where we were going on holiday.

“What are you talking about?” said the teacher. š The teacher asked us what we were talking about.

says / say to + O => asks / ask + O said to + O => asked + O

Ví dụ: He said to me: “Who are you writing to?” š He asked me who I was writing to.

3/ Reported commands:

Câu tường thuật loại câu mệnh lệnh khẳng định có dạng:

S + told + O + to-infinitive.

Ví dụ: – “Please wait for me here, Mary.” Tom said. š Tom told Mary to wait for him there.

Câu tường thuật loại câu mệnh lệnh phủ định có dạng:

S + told + O + not to-infinitive.

Ví dụ: “Don’t talk in class!” the teacher said. The teacher told the children not to talk in class.

Một số động từ thường dùng khi tường thuật câu mệnh lệnh: tell, ask, order, advise, warn, beg, command, remind, instruct, ….

III. Bài tập về câu tường thuật trong tiếng Anh

Viết lại những câu sau thành câu tường thuật 

1. “Please let me borrow your car.” he said to her.

– He asked… ………………………………………………………………

2. “Jean, have you seen my gloves?” Thomas asked.

– Thomas asked Jean…..

3. Don’t leave the window open, Mary.”, I said.

– I told Mary…. ………………………………………………………….

4. “I’ll have a cup of tea with you.” she said.

– She said that…

5. “I’ll pay him if I can.” she said.

– She said that… ………………………………………………………….

6. “What are you going to do next summer?” she asked.

– She asked us…. ………………………………………………………….

7. “I’ll phone you tomorrow.” he told Jack.

– He told Jack that…. …………………………………………………….

8. “Can I sit beside you, Jean?” Tom asked.

– Tom asked Jean…. ……………………………………………………..

9. “I want a camera for my birthday.” he said.

– He said that…. ………………………………………………………….

10. “Don’t keep the door locked.” he said to us.

– He told us…. ………………………………………………………….

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11. “How long are you going to stay?” I asked him.

– I asked him how long….

12. “Are you going by train?” she asked me.

– She wanted to know…. …………………………………………..

13. “Don’t use too much hot water.” she said to us.

– She asked us…. ……………………………………………………..

14. “Will you come to my party?” she said to me.

– She invited me…. ……………………………………………………

15. “Don’t do it again.” she said to them.

She told them…………………………………………………………

16. “ Did Mr Brown send the potatoes to you?” she asked.

– She asked……………………………………………………………..

17. “Don’t get your shoes dirty, boys.” she said.

– She told………………………………………………………………..

18. “What do you want for lunch today, Peter?” Mary asked.

– Mary asked……………………………………………………………..

19. “Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet?” asked Peter.

– Peter asked if ……………………………………………………………..

20. “Why didn’t I get a computer before?” thought the office manager.

– The office manager wondered……………………………………………………

Đáp án

1. He asked her to let him borrow her car.

2. Thomas asked Jean whether/if she had seen his gloves.

3. I told Mary not to leave the window open.

4. She said that she would have a cup of tea with me.

5. She said that she would pay him if she could.

6. She asked us what we were going to do the following summer.

7. He told Jack that he would phone him the following day.

8. Tom asked Jean whether/if he could sit beside her.

9. He said that he wanted a camera for his birthday.

10. He told us not to keep the door locked.

11. I asked him how long he was going to stay.

12. She wanted to know whether I was going by train.

13. She asked us not to use too much hot water.

14. She invited me to come to her party.

15. She told them not to do it again.

16. She asked whether/ if Mr. Brown sent the potatoes to me.

17. She told the boys not to get their shoes dirty.

18. Mary asked what Peter wanted for lunch that day.

19. Peter asked Janet whether/ if he could borrow her typewriter.

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20. The office manager wondered why he hadn’t got a computer before.

Hy vọng rằng những chia sẻ trên sẽ giúp các bạn hiểu rõ hơn về câu tường thuật (Reported Speech) một loại câu mà chắc hẳn bạn sẽ sử dụng rất nhiều trong quá trình sử dụng tiếng anh. 

Chúc các bạn học tốt!

Để được tư vấn miễn phí về lộ trình học giao tiếp cho người mất gốc, các bạn để lại thông tin tại đây để được hỗ trợ nhé!


Reported Speech


Reported Speech or Indirect speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not their exact words. We use reporting verbs like say, tell, ask, admit, promise, explain, announce, invite, etc.

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูความรู้เพิ่มเติมที่นี่

Reported Speech

Reporting Verb Rule (Basic knowledge)


Reporting Verb Rule (Basic knowledge)
In this class we learn basic knowledge regarding Reporting Verb Rule

Koi bhi grammar sikhne se pehle basic jana jaruri hota hai
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Reporting Verb Rule (Basic knowledge)

Reported verbs


شرح بسيط وسهل لقاعدة C5 لمقرر مادة اللغة الإنجليزية لطلاب السنة التحضيرية

Reported verbs

Reported Speech


Learn all about reported speech or indirect speech!
Reported speech or indirect speech is used to report something that someone said in the past.
Practice here: http://www.teacherdiane.com/youtube/page/1
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Reported Speech

REPORTING VERBS


This is the second part of reported speech and it is about reporting verbs. The lesson is for 1st and 2nd Moroccan Baccalaureate students during these Covid19 school clores.
Disclaimer: The images in the video are not mine; they are gathered from the Internet and they are for educational purposes during these Covid19 school closures.

REPORTING VERBS

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูวิธีอื่นๆLEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGE

ขอบคุณมากสำหรับการดูหัวข้อโพสต์ reporting verb

See also  Present simple / Present continuous ใช้ต่างกันยังไง | Eng ลั่น [by We Mahidol] | present simple tense แบบฝึกหัด พร้อม เฉลย

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