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Home » [Update] Sentence Structures: Simple, Compound, Complex, & Compound-Complex | ประโยค compound – NATAVIGUIDES

[Update] Sentence Structures: Simple, Compound, Complex, & Compound-Complex | ประโยค compound – NATAVIGUIDES

ประโยค compound: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

Learn about English sentence structures

There are four sentence structures in English: Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex. Here are examples of each:

  1. She ate lunch.  (Simple: one independent clause)
  2. She ate lunch,

    but

    she was still hungry. (Compound: two independent clauses joined by a

    coordinating conjunction

    ).

  3. She was still hungry

    even though she had eaten lunch

    . (Complex: an independent clause + a

    dependent

    clause)

  4. She was tired,

    and

    she was still hungry

    even though she had eaten lunch

    (Compound-Complex: two independent clauses joined by a

    coordinating conjunction

    and one dependent clause)

First: Understanding Clauses

A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb. It’s important to understand that there are two types of clauses:

Independent Clauses

A sentence must have at least one independent clause. An independent clause is a group of words that form a complete thought when you put them together. Here are some examples:

  • She ate lunch. 
  • The car drove on the road. 
  • On Tuesday, I had my test. 

These sentences are complete thoughts, which means that no more information is needed to understand them completely.

Dependent Clauses (Subordinate Clauses)

Dependent clauses are incomplete thoughts. They depend on an independent clause in order for the sentence to have meaning. Dependent clauses begin with a subordinate conjunction. Here are some examples:

  • when I got home

    (what happened?)

  • because the restaurant was closed

    (what happened because it was closed?)

  • whom I respect very much

    (whom are we talking about?)

As you can see, more information is needed. To create a complete sentence, you need to add an independent clause. Here are the examples again but written as complete sentences (known as complex sentences):

  • I washed the dishes

    when I got home

    .

  • We couldn’t eat

    because the restaurant was closed

    .

  • The company’s owner is Alice Brown

    ,

    whom I respect very much

    .

Now that you understand this, we can look at the four different sentence structures.

Structure #1: Simple Sentences

A simple sentence is one independent clause. A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb, and an independent clause it a group of words that form a complete thought when you put them together. Here are some examples:

  • She ate lunch. (Independent clause)
  • The car drove on the road.  (Independent clause)
  • On Tuesday, I had my test. (Independent clause)

Again, all of these sentences are complete thoughts.

 

Structure #2: Compound Sentences

A compound sentence is made of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction.

Although the most commonly used coordinating conjunctions are but, and, so, and or, there are seven coordinating conjunctions in English:

  • F

     = for

  • A

     = and

  • N

     = nor

  • B

     = but

  • O

     = or

  • Y

     = yet

  • S

     = so

[ independent clause ],{ coordinating conjunction }[independent clause]She ate lunch,

but

she was still hungry.He sat down,

and

he read a book.It was rainy,

so

we stayed inside.We can order food

or

we can make pasta at home.

The above sentences are all independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction, so they are all compound sentences.

Structure #3: Complex Sentences

A complex sentence has a dependent clause and an independent clause. The dependent clause can come at the beginning of the sentence or at the end. Here are some examples:

  • She fell asleep

    because she was tired

    .

  • Because she was tired

    , she fell asleep.

  • I’ll call you

    if I go

    .

  • If I go

    , I’ll call you.

(Note: When a dependent clause starts a sentence, you should put a comma at its end to show where the clause ends.)

An adjective clause (also known as a relative clause) is also considered a dependent clause as well. E.g.:

  • This is the store

    where I bought my hat.

  • Vancouver,

    which is in western Canada

    , is a beautiful city.

 

Structure #4: Compound-Complex

A compound-complex sentence has the following:

  1. two independent clauses joined a

    coordinating conjunction

  2. a dependent clause

The dependent clause can be anywhere in the sentence. Here are some examples:

  • She took out her umbrella

    because it was raining

    ,

    and

    then she walked home.

  • I don’t like exercising,

    but

    I’ll do it

    if I have to

    .

  • The man

    who was on the other side of the street

    waved,

    so

    I looked at him.

Question: What about Compound-Compound? Complex-Complex?

Technically, you can make more complicated types of of sentence structures, for example:

  • She arrived

    and

    then he arrived

    and

    then I arrived

    so

    we were all there.

Is this Compound-Compound-Compound sentence? No. It’s still just called a Compound sentence. Also, it’s a badly written sentence.

  • Before she went home

    , she cleaned up the area

    where she had worked

    .

Is this a Complex-Complex sentence? No. It’s still called a complex sentence, even though there are two dependent clauses.

Why is all this important? What sentence structures should I use?

Spoken English tends to mainly use simple and compound sentences, but higher-level writing (e.g. academic and business communications) should use some complex structures. A complex sentence can be more efficient because it can contain several ideas in the same sentence. Also, using conjunctions such although or because helps the reader understand how ideas relate to each other, which makes your writing more cohesive

Still, writing well doesn’t mean only using long and complicated sentences. Writing is most effective when it’s clear. This can be achieved by using short, simple sentences, such as this one. In short, writing effectively and efficiently means using a variety of sentence structures.

^ By the way, the above two paragraphs contained the following:

  • Compound sentences: 1
    • Spoken English tends to mainly use simple and compound sentences,

      but

      higher-level writing (e.g. academic and business communications) should use a variety of structures (i.e. simple, compound, and complex).

  • Complex sentences: 3
    • A complex sentence can be more efficient

      because it can contain several ideas in the same sentence.

    • Also, using conjunctions such ‘although‘ or ‘because‘ helps the reader understand

      how ideas relate to each other

      ,

      which makes your writing more cohesive

      .

    • Writing is most effective

      when it’s clear.

  • Simple sentences: 3
    • Still, writing well doesn’t mean only using long and complicated sentences. 

    • This can be achieved by using short, simple sentences, such as this one.

    • I

      n short, writing effectively and efficiently means using a variety of sentence structures.

  • Compound-complex: 0

Do you think you understand? Try our exercises below!

Exercises #1: Identifying Sentence Structures

  1. The man smiled and laughed. 
  2. The man smiled, but I did not know why. 
  3. When the cat is away, the mice will play. 
  4. The answer is not known. 
  5. If people would like to apply, they can call 1-800-493-222 or they can e-mail

    [email protected]

  6. He asked me a question so I answered. 
  7. I e-mailed the company, and they responded immediately, which surprised me.

Show Answers & Explanation

  1. Simple (Independent clause) Note: “and laughed” is not a clause because it does not contain another subject and verb. Therefore, this sentence only has one clause
  2. Compound (Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + Independent clause)
  3. Complex (Dependent clause + Independent clause)
  4. Simple (Independent clause)
  5. Compound-complex (Dependent clause, independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent clause)
  6. Compound (Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + Independent clause)
  7. Compound-complex (Independent clause, coordinating conjunction, independent clause, dependent clause)

 

Exercises #2: Identifying Sentence Structures

  1. The train station was still closed but a few coffee shops were open. 
  2. If you have further questions, please do not hesitate to ask. 
  3. Some people only need a computer to do their jobs, so they can easily work from home.
  4. On the second weekend of July last year, I went camping.
  5. As population increases, food shortages become more common and quality of life can decrease. 
  6. The price of the service increased by 20%, but because the company did not inform its customers, many people demanded an explanation. 
  7. Many students didn’t understand, so their teacher explained the answer very clearly and slowly. 

Show Answers & Explanations

  1. Compound (Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + Independent clause)
  2. Complex (Dependent clause + Independent clause)
  3. Compound (Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + Independent clause)
  4. Simple (Independent clause) Note: “On the second weekend of July last year” is a prepositional phrase, not a clause because there is no subject or verb.
  5. Compound-Complex (Dependent clause, Independent clause + coordinating conjunction Independent clause)
  6. Compound-Complex (Independent clause, coordinating conjunction, dependent clause, independent clause)
  7. Compound (Independent clause, coordinating conjunction, Independent clause)

 

If you have any questions about sentence structures, please leave a comment below or visit our forums.

— Created by Matthew Barton of Englishcurrent.com (Copyright)

[NEW] Compound แปลว่าอะไร ดูความหมาย ตัวอย่างประโยค หมายความว่า พจนานุกรม Longdo Dictionary แปลภาษา คำศัพท์ | ประโยค compound – NATAVIGUIDES

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Compound \Com"pound\ (k[o^]m"pound), n. [Malay kompung a
     village.]
     In the East Indies, an inclosure containing a house,
     outbuildings, etc.
     [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Compound \Com*pound"\ (k[o^]m*pound"), v. t. [imp. & p. p.
     {Compounded}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Compounding}.] [OE. componen,
     compounen, L. componere, compositum; com-+ ponere to put set.
     The d is excrescent. See {Position}, and cf. {Compon['e]}.]
     1. To form or make by combining different elements,
        ingredients, or parts; as, to compound a medicine.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              Incapacitating him from successfully compounding a
              tale of this sort.                    --Sir W.
                                                    Scott.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. To put together, as elements, ingredients, or parts, in
        order to form a whole; to combine, mix, or unite.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              We have the power of altering and compounding those
              images into all the varieties of picture. --Addison.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. To modify or change by combination with some other thing
        or part; to mingle with something else.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              Only compound me with forgotten dust. --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     4. To compose; to constitute. [Obs.]
        [1913 Webster]
  
              His pomp and all what state compounds. --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     5. To settle amicably; to adjust by agreement; to compromise;
        to discharge from obligation upon terms different from
        those which were stipulated; as, to compound a debt.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              I pray, my lords, let me compound this strife.
                                                    --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     {To compound a felony}, to accept of a consideration for
        forbearing to prosecute, such compounding being an
        indictable offense. See {Theftbote}.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Compound \Com*pound"\, v. i.
     To effect a composition; to come to terms of agreement; to
     agree; to settle by a compromise; -- usually followed by with
     before the person participating, and for before the thing
     compounded or the consideration.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           Here's a fellow will help you to-morrow; . . . compound
           with him by the year.                    --Shak.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           They were at last glad to compound for his bare
           commitment to the Tower.                 --Clarendon.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           Cornwall compounded to furnish ten oxen after
           Michaelmas for thirty pounds.            --R. Carew.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           Compound for sins they are inclined to
           By damning those they have no mind to.   --Hudibras.
     [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Compound \Com"pound\, a. [OE. compouned, p. p. of compounen. See
     {Compound}, v. t.]
     Composed of two or more elements, ingredients, parts;
     produced by the union of several ingredients, parts, or
     things; composite; as, a compound word.
     [1913 Webster]
  
           Compound substances are made up of two or more simple
           substances.                              --I. Watts.
     [1913 Webster]
  
     {Compound addition}, {subtraction}, {multiplication},
     {division} (Arith.), the addition, subtraction, etc., of
        compound numbers.
  
     {Compound crystal} (Crystallog.), a twin crystal, or one
        seeming to be made up of two or more crystals combined
        according to regular laws of composition.
  
     {Compound engine} (Mech.), a form of steam engine in which
        the steam that has been used in a high-pressure cylinder
        is made to do further service in a larger low-pressure
        cylinder, sometimes in several larger cylinders,
        successively.
  
     {Compound ether}. (Chem.) See under {Ether}.
  
     {Compound flower} (Bot.), a flower head resembling a single
        flower, but really composed of several florets inclosed in
        a common calyxlike involucre, as the sunflower or
        dandelion.
  
     {Compound fraction}. (Math.) See {Fraction}.
  
     {Compound fracture}. See {Fracture}.
  
     {Compound householder}, a householder who compounds or
        arranges with his landlord that his rates shall be
        included in his rents. [Eng.]
  
     {Compound interest}. See {Interest}.
  
     {Compound larceny}. (Law) See {Larceny}.
  
     {Compound leaf} (Bot.), a leaf having two or more separate
        blades or leaflets on a common leafstalk.
  
     {Compound microscope}. See {Microscope}.
  
     {Compound motion}. See {Motion}.
  
     {Compound number} (Math.), one constructed according to a
        varying scale of denomination; as, 3 cwt., 1 qr., 5 lb.;
        -- called also {denominate number}.
  
     {Compound pier} (Arch.), a clustered column.
  
     {Compound quantity} (Alg.), a quantity composed of two or
        more simple quantities or terms, connected by the sign +
        (plus) or - (minus). Thus, a + b - c, and bb - b, are
        compound quantities.
  
     {Compound radical}. (Chem.) See {Radical}.
  
     {Compound ratio} (Math.), the product of two or more ratios;
        thus ab:cd is a ratio compounded of the simple ratios a:c
        and b:d.
  
     {Compound rest} (Mech.), the tool carriage of an engine
        lathe.
  
     {Compound screw} (Mech.), a screw having on the same axis two
        or more screws with different pitch (a differential
        screw), or running in different directions (a right and
        left screw).
  
     {Compound time} (Mus.), that in which two or more simple
        measures are combined in one; as, 6-8 time is the joining
        of two measures of 3-8 time.
  
     {Compound word}, a word composed of two or more words;
        specifically, two or more words joined together by a
        hyphen.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 [gcide]:

  Compound \Com"pound\, n.
     1. That which is compounded or formed by the union or mixture
        of elements ingredients, or parts; a combination of
        simples; a compound word; the result of composition.
        --Shak.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              Rare compound of oddity, frolic, and fun.
                                                    --Goldsmith.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              When the word "bishopric" was first made, it was
              made as a compound.                   --Earle.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. (Chem.) A union of two or more ingredients in definite
        proportions by weight, so combined as to form a distinct
        substance; as, water is a compound of oxygen and hydrogen.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Note: Every definite chemical compound always contains the
           same elements, united in the same proportions by
           weight, and with the same internal arrangement.
           [1913 Webster]
  
     {Binary compound} (Chem.). See under {Binary}.
  
     {Carbon compounds} (Chem.). See under {Carbon}.
        [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]:

  compound
      adj 1: composed of more than one part; "compound leaves are
             composed of several lobes; "compound flower heads" [ant:
             {simple}, {unsubdivided}]
      2: consisting of two or more substances or ingredients or
         elements or parts; "soap is a compound substance"; "housetop
         is a compound word"; "a blackberry is a compound fruit"
      3: composed of many distinct individuals united to form a whole
         or colony; "coral is a colonial organism" [syn: {colonial},
         {compound}]
      n 1: a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts
      2: (chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or
         more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
         [syn: {compound}, {chemical compound}]
      3: an enclosure of residences and other building (especially in
         the Orient)
      v 1: make more intense, stronger, or more marked; "The efforts
           were intensified", "Her rudeness intensified his dislike
           for her"; "Pot smokers claim it heightens their awareness";
           "This event only deepened my convictions" [syn:
           {intensify}, {compound}, {heighten}, {deepen}]
      2: put or add together; "combine resources" [syn: {compound},
         {combine}]
      3: calculate principal and interest
      4: create by mixing or combining
      5: combine so as to form a whole; mix; "compound the
         ingredients" [syn: {compound}, {combine}]


ฝึกแต่งประโยค Complex Sentence พร้อมเรียนรู้ประเภทของประโยคภาษาอังกฤษ


เรียนรู้ประเภทของประโยคภาษาอังกฤษ (Simple Sentence, Compound Sentence, Complex Sentence) พร้อมทั้งคำสันธานเชื่อมอนุประโยค (Subordinating Conjunction) หรือ Relative Pronoun และในช่วงท้ายของบทเรียนจะสอนฝึกแต่งประโยคความซ้อน (Complex Sentence) อีกด้วย

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ฝึกแต่งประโยค Complex Sentence พร้อมเรียนรู้ประเภทของประโยคภาษาอังกฤษ

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ตัวอย่าง การแต่งประโยค simple, compound and complex


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วิชาภาษาอังกฤษ ชั้น ม.3 เรื่อง การใช้ Simple sentence


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โครงสร้างประโยค Sentence Structure By Kru Somsri


โครงสร้างประโยค Sentence Structure By Kru Somsri
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โครงสร้างประโยค Sentence Structure By Kru Somsri

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่LEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGE

ขอบคุณที่รับชมกระทู้ครับ ประโยค compound

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