Home » [Update] Present Unreal Situations | present and future unreal conditionals คือ – NATAVIGUIDES

[Update] Present Unreal Situations | present and future unreal conditionals คือ – NATAVIGUIDES

present and future unreal conditionals คือ: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

Grammar-QuizzesConnectorsConnective PrepositionsConditional › Present Unreal Conditionals

Present Unreal Conditionals 

(Remote Conditional)

Develop a strategy with hypothetical statements

 

 

Strategy Statements

Before making a move in chess, a player thinks about what will happen if he or she makes the move.  The player does not actually make the move, but thinks about it instead. No move is made until the player considers several hypothetical moves and their consequences. That is, the player analyzes options and outcomes.

We express hypothetical situations with the preterit. This “past tense” verb form expresses distance or remoteness from reality  rather than a past time frame. Hypothetical, unreal conditional, or irrealis indicates that an action or state is not a fact.

 

 

Strategy Statements—open vs. remote

STRATEGY —OPEN CONDITIONAL  (REAL)

An open (real) conditional expression is often used to analyze options that are available. The speaker considers one action at a time and its outcome. Then, the person decides on the best course of action. “Under situation X, Y will occur.”  When an immediate answer is needed, a person is more likely to use an open (real) condition to express strategy.                                                               

The modal will or can is used in the main clause, and a present verb form is used in the clause after if.

OPTION
OUTCOME

If I move my pawn forward,

Under this condition,

I can take his bishop.

this will happen.

If I slide my rook away,

(castle)

his queen will not take it.

 

If I check his king,

 

he will have to move it aside.

 

If he moves his king aside,

my knight will take it.

(horse)

STRATEGY—REMOTE CONDITIONAL  (UNREAL)

A remote (unreal) conditional is also used to examine options. The difference is that the speaker is distancing him/herself from the present reality (“irrealis”), as if the person were considering it from a separate space. Using a remote conditional does not mean that the person is less likely to make the move; it is more of a personal preference in expressing strategy.

The modal would, could or might is used in the main clause, and a preterit verb form is used in the clause after if.

IMAGINED CONDITION
IMAGINED RESULT

If I moved my pawn forward,

I could take his bishop. 

If I slid my rook out of the way,

(castle)

his queen might not take it. 

If I check his king,

he would have to move it. 

If he were lucky,

he would win. 

 

in order – for the purpose of, toward the goal of

Under the condition that X occurs, Y will happen

hypothetical (Adj) – assumed by hypothesis (theory); unreal conditions or situations

preterit (N) – a past tense verb form; past or past perfect

strategize [US-Engl] / develop a strategy [Br-Engl] (V) — make, create or think up a plan with a series of actions that will enable you to reach a goal.

strategy (N) – the process of planning out a series of actions to reach a goal, a desired end, success; adopt, employ or use a strategy — put the strategy (plan) into action.

“The remote construction differs in meaning from open in that it entertains the condition as being satisfied in a world which is potentially different from the actual world.” (Huddleston 8 §14.2.1)

When the context of the open conditional requires a real world, immediate answer,  hypothetical (remote) wording sounds odd:  the more time-sensitive (urgent) the question, the less hypothetical the wording.

 

 

 

 

“Irrealis”

Were

&

Would

Distancing ourselves from reality

 

 

Present Hypothetical Statements — “Irrealis”

STATEMENT

We use special verbs with if when we are talking about situations that we imagine; that is, things that probably will not happen. The unreal statement includes the preterit. The result clause includes a would or could modal form. 

UNREAL CONDITION

IMAGINED RESULT

PREP PHRASE + CLAUSE w/ preterit
CLAUSE w/ WOULD/COULD + VERB

If
I were/was a millionaire,

I would buy a private jet.

If
I were/was a millionaire,

I could buy a private jet.

If I could choose anything,

I would buy a house.

If I could choose anything,

I would buy a house. 
I could buy¹ a house. 

Were I a millionaire,

I could buy a house.
 

NEGATIVE / QUESTION

A negative is formed by placing not after the verb in the hypothetical clause or in the other clause.  A question is formed by inverting the subject and auxiliary verb (would or could) in the result clause.                                                              

UNREAL CONDITION

IMAGINED RESULT

PREP PHRASE + CLAUSE w/ preterit
CLAUSE w/ WOULD/COULD + VERB

If
I were/was a millionaire, (I am not)

I wouldn’t travel on a commercial airline.

If
I weren’t /wasn’t a millionaire, (I am)

I would have to travel like everyone else.

 If I could vacation anywhere,   

I wouldn’t stay here.
 

If you were a millionaire,

could you stop working?
       

If you could
choose,

would you move away?
       

 

¹ repeating could is awkward

irrealis (N) – indicates that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking; it is hypothetical, imaginary (in a distant reality).

preterit (N) – a past tense verb form; past or past perfect

was / were –  We often use were instead of was after if.  Both was and were are used in formal English, but only was is used in informal English.  If I were you…  Were is a subjunctive verb form.

 

 

 

Hypothetical Situations

Mixed Time Frames

 

Mixed Time Frames—Future and Present Hypotheticals

FUTURE HYPOTHETICAL

A future hypothetical is expressed with be going (not will) in the clause following if.  Were going (formal) or was going (informal)
is used for 1st and 3rd person singular. 

The resulting imaginary action is expressed with would (pres. & future), would be -ing (progressive), would have (past), or would have been -ing (past progressive).

FUTURE HYPOTHETICAL
RESULT CLAUSE

WERE GOING / WAS GOING
WOULD

If it were going to rain soon, 

(It will not actually rain later today.)

I would plan on walking the dogs afterward.   future

I would walk the dogs later.   future

I would be walking the dogs now.   pres. progressive

I would have walked the dogs already. past

If we were going to attend a rock concert,  (later today)

(We will not actually attend a concert later tonight.)

we would buy our tickets in advance. future

we would buy our tickets online. future

we would be getting ready now. present

we would have left already. past

PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL

A present hypothetical is also expressed with be going (not will) in the clause following if. Were going (formal) or was going (informal)
is used for 1st and 3rd person singular. 

The resulting imaginary action is expressed with would (pres. & future), would be -ing (progressive), would have (past), or would have been -ing (past progressive).   

PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
RESULT CLAUSE

WERE GOING / WAS GOING
WOULD

If it were raining now, 

(It is not actually raining now.)

I would plan on walking the dogs afterward.   future

I would walk the dogs later.   future

I wouldn’t be walking the dogs now.   pres. progressive  

I would have brought the dogs inside already. past  

If we were attending a rock concert now,  

(We aren’t actually attending a concert now.)

we would be in a good mood afterwards. future

we would be taking pictures. future

we would be singing along. present

we would have been seated already. past passive voice

 

if — heads an adjunct prepositional phrase that takes a clause (and a few other word forms) as its complement. The condition “clause” is actually a prepositional phrase (PP). Call me if you are ready. Call me if necessary. I rarely, if ever, call them..

Also see Mixed Tenses (past)

 

 

 

 

 

Present & Past Hypothetical

Expression –

If it weren’t for 

 

 

If it weren’t for / If it hadn’t been for

IF IT WAS/ WERE NOT FOR

If it weren’t for…  is another way to say that one event changes everything. The expression is followed by a noun phrase (NP) or a gerund clause.                        

IF IT WEREN’T FOR …
RESULT CLAUSE

If it weren’t for your mother,

you wouldn’t be here.

If it  weren’t for all this homework,

I’d go with you.

If it  weren’t for his offering his services for free,

we would never be able to afford healthcare.

If it  weren’t for music,

we’d all be dancing to drum beats.

IF IT HAD NOT BEEN FOR

If it hadn’t been for…  is another way to say that one past event changed everything.  The expression is followed by a noun phrase (NP) or a gerund clause.

IF IT HADN’T BEEN FOR …
RESULT CLAUSE

If it  hadn’t been for his advice,

I would have made the wrong decision. 

If it  hadn’t been for his advice,

I wouldn’t be here now. 

If it  hadn’t been for your help,

I would have been lost. 

If it  hadn’t been for you wanting to move to Alaska,

I would still be working.  

 

Were or was / weren’t or wasn’t can be used
Also see: Omitting If –  Were I , Had I…, Should you…

 

 

 

 

Present & Future Hypothetical

Expression –

Were to

 

 

Present & Future Hypothetical — full and shortened

FULL HYPOTHETICAL

If … were going to  can be used in the if-clause to express a future hypothetical situation or a request.  (was is used informally)

IF…WERE GOING TO…
RESULT CLAUSE

If you were going to take a trip,
(future)

where would you go?

If the government were going to legalize marijuana,

it would have done so by now.

If you were [going] to stand a little to the left,

I could see better.   (a request)

If you were [going] to lend me a little money,

I could buy a ticket.  (a request)

* If you were going to be on time…   

 

SHORTENED HYPOTHETICAL

If … were to, a shortened form with just the auxiliary before the infinitive, may be used to express a similar meaning.

IF … WERE TO…
RESULT CLAUSE

If you were to take a trip,

where would you go?

If the government were to legalize marijuana,

it would have a great deal of difficulty.

If you were to stand a little to the left,

I could see better.   (a request)

If you were to lend me a little money,

I could buy a ticket.   (a request)

*If you were to know the answer…

 

 

was / were –  We often use were instead of was after if.  Both was and were are used in formal English, but only was is used in informal English.  If I were you… 
*sounds awkward with stative verbs

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*If you would have a flu shot, you wouldn’t be so sick now.

Would is not normally used in the if-clause: the meaning differs.

 

If you could get a flu shot, you wouldn’t be so sick now.

 

 

SOLUTION

If you would have a flu shot (be willing), you would have some protection against the flu. (implies: you are unwilling; the sick person is being shamed)

If you will get a flu shot, you will have some protection. (a good plan)

If you could get a flu shot (be able), you would have some protection against the flu. (implies: you are unable to get, locate, take, pay, or qualify for one.)

If you had had a flu shot, you wouldn’t be so sick now. (earlier condition)

If you had a flu shot, you would have some protection against the flu. (present condition)

 

flu (N) – influenza, a virus, a common illness that makes you feel very tired and weak, gives you a sore throat, and makes you cough and have to clear your nose a lot
shot (N) – injection; something that protects a person from a disease with a vaccine

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice

Managing a Restaurant

 

 

Determine which verb tense can complete the statement.

  1. Select the response that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the answer by clicking the “Check” or the “Check 1-8” button.

 

1.

If we moved the restaurant downtown,

we will have more customers.
 
 

we would have more customers.

we would have had more customers.

Feedback 1

2.

If we used more local farm produce,

we could improve our menu.

we could improved our menu.

we can improve our menu.

Feedback 2

3.

If we hired a pastry chef,

we could improved our dessert selection. 

can improve our dessert selection.

we could improve our dessert selection.

Feedback 3

4.

If we opened an oyster bar,

we might attract oyster fans.

may have attracted oyster fans.

might have attracted oyster fans.

Feedback 4

5.

If we improved the lighting,

it will make the restaurant feel more romantic.

it would make the restaurant feel more romantic.

it will have made the restaurant feel more romantic.

Feedback 5

6.

We could fit more customers in the restaurant

if we changed the tables into booths.

if we changing the tables into booths.
 

if we would change the tables into booths.

Feedback 6

7.

We would get more reservations

if we use an Internet booking service like OpenTable.com.

if we may use an Internet booking service like Compensable.

if we used an Internet booking service like OpenTable.com.

Feedback 7

8.

Our business would improve

, if we made a few changes. 

(comma)

 

 if we made a few changes.  

(no comma)

 if we made a few changes.

(optional comma)

Feedback 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Update] Learn English Grammar | present and future unreal conditionals คือ – NATAVIGUIDES

Conditional sentences have two parts – a condition and a result.

Unreal conditionals are similar to real conditionals, but with unreal conditionals, the condition is not true and not real. Or it is very unlikely to happen or be true.

We are just imagining what we would do in a situation that is not real or very unlikely to be real.

  • If this shirt were on sale, I would buy it.
    (Really, the shirt is not on sale and I will not buy it.)
  • If I were an animal, I would be a lion.
    (Really, I am not an animal.)

Here are some examples of when we might use an unreal conditional for a highly unlikely thing.

  • If I won the lottery, I would buy a house and a car.
    (The probability of winning the lottery is so low that we use the unreal conditional.)
  • If I met the President, I would want to tell him to lower taxes.
    (The chances of me meeting the President are very low.)

We can use unreal conditionals in the present, past, and future tense.

Let’s go over unreal conditionals for each tense. Remember that we can also mix tenses, but we will study this more in a different lesson.

Present and Future Unreal Conditionals

These conditionals talk about what we would do in an unreal situation. We are just imagining or thinking about it. It is not real or it is very unlikely to be real.

If/When + condition + (then) result
Result + if/when + condition

The condition is in the past tense. Use “would/could/might/may + verb” for the result in the future or present tense.

  • If I didn’t have to work, I would go hiking every day.
  • If she had more time, she would learn English.
  • They would come if it were possible. But sadly, it is impossible for them to come.
  • I wish this car were cheaper. If it were cheaper, I would buy it in a second.
  • If there were another way, I would not quit my job, but I don’t think there is another way.
  • I could move to Canada if I spoke English better.
  • She might like me if I were more handsome.

Note:

We do not use “was” with unreal conditionals. Use “were” with every subject.

  • If I were a millionaire, I would live in London.
  • If she were nicer, then I would invite her to my party, but she is not nice and I do not want her at my party.

We can also use continuous forms with these conditionals.

  • If I were working there, I would quit.
  • If I were in Europe, I would be drinking an espresso in a café right now.
  • She would be going to the beach this weekend if she weren’t working.

Future Unreal Conditionals – 2 other ways

Future unreal conditionals can look the same as present unreal conditionals. But there are two different ways to make future unreal conditionals. This is just like when we use the present continuous or “going to + verb” to talk about the future.

If/When + condition + (then) result
Result + if/when + condition

The condition uses the continuous forms (were + present participle / were going to + verb). The result also uses the continuous form (would be + present participle).

A present participle is formed by adding “-ing” to the end of a verb.

  • If I were going on the trip next week, I would be taking time off work.

Past Unreal Conditionals

Past unreal conditionals are very important, but they can be difficult for English learners.

They are a little different than other conditionals. We use past unreal conditionals to talk about things that have already finished. The event or thing is finished, but we are imagining what we would or could do differently if we did it again or if it happened again.

It is like we are getting in a time machine and going back in time and doing something again, but changing one thing.

If/When + condition + (then) result
Result + if/when + condition

The condition is in the past perfect tense. For the result, use “would have + past participle”, “could have + past participle”, or “might/may have + past participle”.

  • If I had studied harder, I would have passed the test. Unfortunately, I did not study hard.
  • We would have had a good time if you had come to the party.
  • If she had studied harder when she was in university, she could have become a doctor or lawyer.
  • They could have finished on time if you had helped them. Why didn’t you help them?
  • She might have got the promotion if she hadn’t gotten in that big fight with the manager.

We can also use the continuous verb forms in these conditionals.

  • They could have finished yesterday if they hadn’t been arguing all day.
  • If she had been working hard, then she could have finished a long time ago.
  • If you had been paying attention, then you wouldn’t have gotten in the accident.

Note:

Unreal conditionals and real conditionals are extremely important, but there are many small differences that we need to remember. It is important that you spend enough time studying and practicing these sentences.

Remember that we can also mix tenses, but we will study this more in a different lesson.

Improve your English grammar and learn to speak fluently with this simple practice. Finish the sentences below and then practice making your own sentences. It is the best way to learn English quickly and properly!

If I won the lottery, I would _______________.
If I had more time today, then I would _______________.
She would _______________ if she _______________.
She would _______________ if her family _______________.
She would _______________ if her boyfriend _______________.
I would visit _______________ if I could travel anywhere in the world.
If I could speak English fluently, then I would _______________.
I wouldn’t be studying English now if _______________.
I wouldn’t have _______________ if _______________.
They could have _______________ if _______________.
He wouldn’t have _______________ if _______________.

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Everyday Grammar: Present Unreal Conditionals


Originally published at http://learningenglish.voanews.com/media/video/everydaygrammarpresentunrealconditionals/3255157.html

Everyday Grammar: Present Unreal Conditionals

Unreal Conditionals about the Present and Future: IF clauses in English


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Index:
0:00 Answers to Lesson 5 tasks
1:55 Unreal conditionals about the present and future
4:09 Answers to Lesson 5 bonus task
6:30 Using \”ever\”
6:57 Using \”If and when\”
7:19 Using \”If I were you\” and WERE for all subjects
8:29 New task
8:50 Bonus question
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Unreal Conditionals about the Present and Future: IF clauses in English

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