parentheses meaning: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้

The parenthesis is a punctuation mark, which is written or typed as an upright curved line. Two parentheses, ( ), are generally paired and used to mark off explanatory or qualifying remarks in writing. Parentheses indicate an interrupting phrase, a word group (a statement, question, or exclamation) that interrupts the flow of a sentence and can also be set off with commas or dashes.

The parenthesis is a type of bracket, which when paired with another bracket—[ ]—is used to interject text within other text. Parentheses are prevalent in mathematics, too, where they are used to set off arithmetic symbols as well as numbers, operations, and equations.

Table of Contents

Origins of the Parenthesis

The symbols themselves first showed up in the late 14th century, with scribes using virgulae convexae (also called half moons) for a variety of purposes. By the end of the 16th century, the parenthesis (from the Latin for “insert beside”) had begun to assume its modern role, as Richard Mulcaster explained in “Elementarie,” which was published in 1582:

“Parenthesis is expressed by two half circles, which in writing enclose some perfit branch, as not mere impertinent, so not fullie concident to the sentence, which it breaketh, and in reading warneth us, that the words inclosed by them ar to be pronounced with a lower & quikker voice, then the words either before them or after them.”

In her book “Quoting Speech in Early English,” Colette Moore notes that parentheses, like other marks of punctuation, originally had both “elocutionary and grammatical” functions:

“[W]e see that whether through vocal or syntactic means, the parentheses are taken as a means to downplay the significance of the material enclosed within.”

Spanning more than 400 years (Moore’s book was published in 2011), both authors say essentially the same thing: Parentheses separate text that, while important in that it adds meaning, is less significant than the text that falls outside of these punctuation marks.

Purpose

Parentheses allow for the insertion of some verbal unit that interrupts the normal syntactic flow of the sentence. These are called parenthetical elements, which may also be set off by dashes. An example of parentheses in use would be:

“The students (it must be acknowledged) are a foul-mouthed bunch.”

The important information in this sentence is that the students are foul-mouthed. The aside adds texture to the sentence, but the statement would work fine and make sense without the parenthetical information. The Chicago Manual of Style Online explains that parentheses, which are stronger than commas or dashes, set off material from the surrounding text, adding that; “Like dashes but unlike commas, parentheses can set off text that has no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence.” The style guide gives these examples:

- Intelligence tests (e.g., the Stanford-Binet) are no longer widely used.
- Our final sample (collected under difficult conditions) contained an impurity.
- Wexford’s analysis (see chapter 3) is more to the point.
- The disagreement between Johns and Evans (its origins have been discussed elsewhere) ultimately destroyed the organization.

The style manual also notes that you can use parentheses as delimiters for letters or numbers in a list or outline, as well as in academic uses including parenthetical references to a list of works cited.

Using Parentheses Correctly

Parentheses (as with other punctuation marks) can be tricky to use until you understand a few simple rules:

**Adding additional information:** June Casagrande, author of “The Best Punctuation Book, Period.”, notes that you can use parentheses to convey additional information, such as:

- The new sedan is fast (it goes from zero to 60 in just six seconds).
- The boss (who had walked in just in time to see the accident) was furious.
- She strolled the third arrondissement (district).

In the first sentence, the statement, The new sedan is fast, does not end with a period. Instead, you place the period after the parenthetical sentence (as well as the final parenthesis), it goes from zero to 60 in just six seconds. You also start the parenthetical sentence with a lowercase letter (i) because it is still considered part of the overall sentence and not a separate statement.

In the second sentence, you might argue that the parenthetical information (the fact that the boss saw an accident) is key to understanding the sentence. In the third sentence, the parenthetical word district is an English translation of the French word arrondissement. Though the word district is parenthetical, it might be important in helping a non-French-speaking reader understand the sentence.

**Delimiters for letters or numbers in a list: **The Chicago Manual of Style says you should put parentheses around each number or letter in a list, as in these examples:

- Compose three sentences to illustrate analogous uses of (1) commas, (2) em dashes, and (3) parentheses.
- For the duration of the experiment, the dieters were instructed to avoid (a) meat, (b) bottled drinks, (c) packaged foods, and (d) nicotine.

**In-text citations/reference information**: The Chicago Manual calls them parenthetical citations, while the American Psychological Association (which sets APA style) calls them in-text citations. These are citations placed within the text in an academic paper, journal article, or book that points the reader to a more complete citation in the bibliography or references section. Examples, as noted by Purdue OWL, are:

- According to Jones (2018), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).
- Jones (2018) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
- The study participants showed no improvement in cholesterol levels (McLellan and Frost, 2012).

For these types of parenthetical citations, you generally include the year of the publication, the author(s)’ names, and, if needed, the page number(s). Note also that in the previous sentence, you can use parentheses around a single letter, indicating that the word “number” may be singular referring to a single page number, or it may be plural, referring to two or more page numbers or that there may be only a single author or several authors.

**Mathematical problems: **In math, parentheses are used to group numbers or variables, or both. When you see a math problem containing parentheses, you need to use the order of operations to solve it. Take as an example the problem: 9 – 5 ÷ (8 – 3) x 2 + 6. In this problem, you would calculate the operation within the parentheses first, even if it is an operation that would normally come after the other operations in the problem.

Parenthetical Observations

Neil Gaiman really likes parentheses. Biographer Hank Wagner quoted the British author in “Prince of Stories: The Many Worlds of Neil Gaiman” explaining why he is a fan of these curved punctuation marks:

“I admired [C.S. Lewis’s] use of parenthetical statements to the reader, where he would just go talk to you. Suddenly the author would address a private aside to you, the reader. It was just you and him. I’d think, ‘Oh, my gosh, that is so cool! I want to do that! When I become an author, I want to be able to do things in parentheses.’ ”

Gaimen may feel blessed when the author offers him a “personal” aside, but other writers say that parentheses may be a clue that the sentence is becoming contorted. As author Sarah Vowell notes in her book, “Take the Cannoli: Stories From the New World,” with a touch of sarcasm:

“I have a similar affection for the parenthesis (but I always take most of my parentheses out, so as not to call undue attention to the glaring fact that I cannot think in complete sentences, that I think only in short fragments or long, run-on thought relays that the literati call stream of consciousness but I still like to think of as disdain for the finality of the period).”

So take the advice of “The Associated Press Stylebook.” Be kind to your readers and use parentheses sparingly. Rewrite your sentence if you find you are including long asides or more than one set of parentheses. Use these punctuation marks only when you have a short, pithy, and interesting bit to convey to readers to heighten their interest—not confuse them.

Featured Video

## [Update] What Are Parentheses in Math? – Math Blog for Differentiation | parentheses meaning – NATAVIGUIDES

**What Are Parentheses in Math?**

Learn exactly how parentheses are used in math and how to solve problems that include them.

Have you ever come across parentheses in math and wondered how they’re used? Or maybe you remember learning something about parentheses in math class, but you’re not sure when to perform operations that are in parentheses.

These important symbols can help you solve equations and math problems correctly. However, first, you have to know what parentheses are and how they fit into the order of operations in math.

Parentheses are these symbols: (). They may also be called round brackets. Parentheses are used to group numbers, operations, or variables together in math.

Parentheses are also part of the order of operations in math.

**What Is the Order of Operations in Math?**

Math problems can be complex and confusing. For example, if you look at a problem like this one: (3+5) – 4 x 5 + 5², what should you do first? Should you go from left to right? Should you do the exponent first? What should you do?

The order of operations tells us exactly how to solve math problems. If you don’t use this important order of operations, you will probably get the answers to your math problems wrong!

The order of operations can easily be remembered by the acronym PEMDAS which stands for:

– **P**arentheses

– **E**xponents

– **M**ultiplication and **D**ivision (whichever comes first from left to right)

– **A**ddition and **S**ubtraction (whichever comes first from left to right)

When solving an equation, you should do the operations in this order.

**How Does the Math Order of Operations Work?**

That may all sound fine. It’s when you get into the math problems that it gets messier. So, let’s use our example to learn in detail how to solve a math problem using the order of operations in math:

(3+5) – 4 x 5 + 5²

To solve this problem, we follow PEMDAS. So, first, we do what’s in the parentheses, which is 3+5. We do this operation first even though addition comes later in the order of operations. Because it’s in parentheses, we do it first. When you’re done solving 3+5, you can replace the answer in the equation without using parenthesis anymore. So now we have:

8 – 4 x 5 + 5²

Next, come exponents which is 5². So now we have:

8 – 4 x 5 + 25

Next, come multiplication and division. There is no division in this equation. So we solve for 4 x 5. So now we have:

8 – 20 + 25

Next, come addition and subtraction. You do whatever comes first from left to right, so we solve for 8-20 first, and then the addition problem that results:

-12 + 25

Finally, the solution is:

-12 + 25 = 13

See? It’s really simple. Using parentheses in math is easy if you know the order of operations. All you have to do is follow the order operations, solve each part of the problem, and eventually, you’ll get your answer.

Remember, follow PEMDAS or you might get the answer wrong!

**Parentheses in Math = Multiplication**

Parentheses in math also has another meaning: multiplication. Let’s take a look at a problem to see how it works.

(3 + 4)5 – 6

To solve this problem, we also follow PEMDAS. So, first we do what’s in the parentheses:

(7)5 – 6

Next comes multiplication and division. Because the parentheses stands for multiplication, we do this next. (7)5 is the same as 7 x 5.

So we solve and get:

35 – 6

The final answer is 29.

Do you have any special tricks for remembering the order of operations or how to use parentheses in math? Tell us about them on social media.

## How Many Loaves of Bread Do We Need? – Quantifiers and Partitives

In this video you will learn how to use correctly the quantifiers like: :’many’, ‘much’, ‘some’, ‘any’, ‘a lot of’, ‘enough’, etc. and partitives like ‘a glass of water’, ‘a can of tuna’, ‘a loaf of bread’, ‘a carton of milk’, etc. A quantifier refers to a quantity of something and partitives refer to a part of something. Watch the video for more examples.

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## Order of Operations | Parentheses and Brackets | PEMDAS

Welcome to Order of Operations with Mr. J! Need help with order of operation problems that have parentheses and brackets (aka nested parentheses)? You’re in the right place!

Whether you’re just starting out, or need a quick refresher, this is the video for you if you’re looking for how to solve order of operation problems with parentheses and brackets. Mr. J will go through examples and explain the steps of solving PEMDAS problems with nested parentheses.

About Math with Mr. J: This channel offers instructional videos that are directly aligned with math standards. Teachers, parents/guardians, and students from around the world have used this channel to help with math content in many different ways. All material is absolutely free.

Click Here to Subscribe to the Greatest Math Channel On Earth: https://goo.gl/XHTrfY

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Email: math5.mrj@gmail.com

Music: https://www.bensound.com/royaltyfreemusic

Hopefully this video is what you’re looking for when it comes to solving order of operation problems with parentheses and brackets.

Have a great rest of your day and thanks again for watching!

## Excel Statistical Analysis 03: Comprehensive Worksheet Formula \u0026 Model Building Video

Download Excel File: https://excelisfun.net/files/Ch01ESA.xlsm

Learn the fundamentals of Excel worksheet formulas, functions and how to build worksheet models.

Topics:

(00:00) Introduction

(00:19) Topics in video

(00:45) Worksheet Formula Elements: what can go into a formula

(01:57) Excel Formula Order of Operations

(03:23) Guidelines for building Excel Worksheet Formula Models

(03:57) Number Formatting as a Façade and how it can lead to misleading models if it is not understood

(05:48) The power of General Number Formatting as an eraser, including keyboard shortcut

(07:00) When you must use the ROUND function rather than Number Formatting

(11:49) Excel’s Golden Rule

(12:20) Building an Excel Worksheet Formula Model

(15:15) ISNA and FORMULATEXT functions to document model.

(19:10) Summary of Formula Types

(21:23) Example of Number, Text and Logical Formulas

(24:50) Example of Aggregate Formula and Single InputOutput Formula. Using AVERAGE, COUNT, COUNTA and ROWS functions.

(28:26) Examples of Dynamic Spilled Array Formulas (only available in Microsoft 365 Excel). Compare and contrast this new school way of making formulas with the old school way.

(29:34) Example of Relative and Absolute Cell References. This is the Old School way to make formulas

(31:30) Dynamic Spilled Array Formula. This new school method is MUCH easier than the older methods

(32:37) Three reasons Dynamic Spilled Array Formula are more efficient than the old methods

(34:37) Second example of Dynamic Spilled Array Formula, including Spilled Range Operator

(35:07) Example of Scalar Array Formula

(36:38) How Excel Table Column Formulas are different than Single InputOutput Formulas and Dynamic Spilled Array Formulas.

(40:00) % of Total and % Change Formulas. Dynamic Spilled Array Formula and Old School Methods.

(42:28) Video Summary

(43:00) Conclusion and Video Links

## Exponents with Parenthesis

This video looks at the exponent rules involving parentheses.

## Parenthesis Examples

Parenthesis Examples view this post on my website:

https://englishpronunciationroadmap.com/parenthesisexamples/

About this Video:

Do you know about parenthesis? We use it in English all the time. Do you know the typical intonation patterns when using parenthesis? In this video, these are exactly the things that I’m going to help you with.

….

In live speech, we think, feel and speak almost simultaneously, which means that part way through one thought we might need to add some extra information, give more context or express our feelings or opinions about what we have just said before continuing. This is parenthesis.

It tends to happen in the middle of an ongoing or developing thought, and so the pitch needs to reflect the fact that this is a supporting comment – a side note – but that that there is still more to come.

‘The issue with the way that he approaches these challenges – and this has been going on for some time – is that he focuses on the problem and not the solution’

Typically, the parenthetical comment tends to be spoken in a different pitch in the voice (to indicate that it is an additional/supporting comment) compared to what has come before and what will come after.

Have another listen:

‘The issue with the way that he approaches these challenges – and this has been going on for some time – is that he focuses on the problem and not the solution’

In addition to this, it is also typical for the pitch to rise on the final word of the parenthetical comment, to suggest that you are going to return to the main point.

Have another listen:

‘The issue with the way that he approaches these challenges – and this has been going on for some time – is that he focuses on the problem and not the solution’

Here’s another:

‘The scale of growth in these emerging markets – I’ll talk more specifically about the figures and statistics later on – is extraordinary’

So if you want to find this video easily again, click like, share it with a friend, and why not subscribe to this channel because I post weekly videos here every Tuesday at 8.30pm GMT local London time, so I hope to see you here next week.

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5 British Pronunciation Hacks: How To Bridge The Gap Between Spellings And Speech

http://englishpronunciationroadmap.com/5britishpronunciationhacks/

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