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DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH

There are two ways of re-telling what a person has said: direct and indirect.

DIRECT SPEECH

Here we repeat the original speaker’s exact words:  direct speech should be places within the quotation marks or inverted commas. The direct speech is found in conversations in books, in plays and quotations.
He said, “I have written the exercise”.

INDIRECT SPEECH

Reporting of what a speaker said without quoting his exact words is called ‘Indirect Speech’. In Indirect speech we give the exact meaning/ the main point of a person’s words, with a few modifications, without necessarily using the speaker’s exact words.

He said that he had written the exercise

Reporting verb. The verb used to introduce the reported speech is called the reporting verb. The tense of the reporting verb is not changed.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

RULES FOR CHANGING DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH.

Rule :1. The adverbs of nearness should be put into those of distance.

Direct Speech-
Indirect Speech
now-
Then

here-
there

here after-
there after

this-
that

these-
those

ago-
before

thus-
so

to-day-
that day

to-night-
that night

last night-
the previous night

yesterday-
the day before (or)     the previous day

tomorrow-
the next day (or)  the following day

last week-
the week before (or) the previous week

next week-
the week after (or) the following week

last month-
the month before (or) the previous month

next month-
a month after

hither-
thither

hence-
thence

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Rule :2. Tenses

If the reporting verb is in the Present or Future tense (e.g., say/says, will say) there is no change in the tense of the verb in the Indirect speech.

Antony says, “I eat a mango”. (D.S.)
Antony says that he eats a mango”. (I.S.)

Marwa says “I’ll travel to Tarime next week)

Marwa says that he will travel to Tarime next week.

The President will say “We shall raise the teachers’ salaries next year”

The President will say that they will raise the teachers’ salaries next year.

If Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense the tense of the verbs in the reported speech or Indirect Speech must be generally changed.

Simple Present Tense in the D.S. becomes simple past tense in the I.S.

John said, “I write a letter”. (D.S)
John said that he wrote a letter. (I.S)

Mwita said, “I like teaching”

Mwita said that he liked teaching”

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Simple Past Tense in the D.S. becomes past perfect or remains unchanged in the I.S.

Angel said, “I brought a pen yesterday”. (D.S)
Angel said that she had bought a pen the day before. (I.S)

Angel said that she bought a pen the previous day (I.S.)

Mwajuma said, “I killed a lion” (D.S)

Mwajuma said that she had killed a lion (I.S)

MWajuma said that she killed a lion. (I.S)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Present Continuous in the D.S. becomes past continuous in the I.S.

John said, “I am going to church”. (D.S)
John said that he was going to church. (I.S)

“I am writing a letter to my brother”, Majura said to Bundala (D.S)

Majura told Bundala that he was writing a letter to his brother. (I.S)

Past Continuous in the D.S. becomes past perfect continuous in the I.S. or remains unchanged.

Nelson said, “I was playing cricket”. (D.S)
Nelson said that he had been playing cricket. (I.S)

Nelson said that he was playing cricket. (I.S)

Sandra said to me, “I was thinking of marrying a rich man.” (D.S)
Sandra told me that she was thinking of marrying a rich man. (I.S)

Sandra told me that she had been thinking of marrying a rich man. (I.S)

Present Perfect in the D.S. becomes past perfect in the I.S.

Kamara said, “I have done my home work”. (D.S)
Kamara said that he had done his home work. (I.S)
“I have lost my handbag”, Shanel said. (D.S)

Shanel said that she had lost her handbag. (I.S)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Present Perfect Continuous in the D.S. becomes past perfect continuous in the I.S.

He said, “I have been reading a novel”. (D.S)
He said that he had been reading a novel. (I.S)

“I have been waiting for you, Mary” Samson said. (D.S)

Samson told Mary that he had been waiting for her.(I.S)

Past perfect in the D.S. remains unchanged in the I.S

“I had finished the work,” Shantel said to her teacher.

Shantel told her teacher that she had finished the work.

“We had slept already when you called.” She said to him

She told him that they had slept already when he called.

8.Past perfect continuous in the D.S remains unchanged in the I.S.

David said, “I had been thinking of marrying a rich girl” (D.S.)

David said that he had been thinking of marrying a rich girl. (I.S)

Martha said to her mother, “We had been doing exams the whole term.” (D.S.)

Martha told her mother that they had been doing exams the whole term. (I.S)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

‘Will’ and ‘Shall’ are changed to ‘would’.

He said, “I will go to London tomorrow”. (D.S)
He said that he would go to London the next day. (I.S)

“I will marry when I want”, said Abooki. (D.S)

Abooki said that she would marry when she wanted. (I.S)

may

might

can

could

come

go

must

had to (or) must

Had better

Had better

Ought to

Ought to

Used to

Used to

Johns said, “I must go now,” (D.S)
Johns said that she had to go then. (I.S)

“You may go now” I said to Shija.(D.S)

I told Shija that he might go then.(I.S)

“You can take it tomorrow,” the teacher said to Moses.(D.S)

The teacher told Mosses that he could take it the following day.(I.S).

“You had better consult a doctor,” mother said to me. (D.S)

Mother told me that I had better consult a doctor. (I.S)

“You ought to love your parents, children” the pastor said. (D.S)

The pastor told the children that they ought to love their parents. (I.S)

Mwita said to Rhobi, “I used to write love stories”. (D.S)

Mwita told Rhobi that he used to write love stories. (I.S)

“You have to come back tomorrow,” the manager said to me. (D.S)

The manager told me that I had to go back the following day. (I.S)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

If the direct speech contains the Universal Truth, habit, facts or permanent states, the tense of the direct speech remains unchanged even if the reporting verb is in the past.

The teacher said, “The sun rises in the East”. (D.S)
The teacher said that the sun rises in the East. (I.S)

My father said “Honesty is the best policy” (D.S)

My father said that honesty in the best policy. (I.S)

“Mt. Kilimanjaro is in Tanzania” the minister said to the tourists. (D.S)

The minister told the tourists that Mt. Kilimanjaro is in Tanzania. (I.S)

“The earth moves round the sun” the Geography teacher said. (D.S)

The Geography teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.

The teacher has said to the pupils, “Sea-water is different from the river water.” (D.S)
The teacher has told the pupils that sea-water is different from river water. (I.S)

David answered, “The Mines are under the ground”. (D.S)
David answered that the Mines are under the ground. (I.S)

John said to his brother, “The U.N. is a world organisation”. (D.S)
John told his brother that the U.N is a world organisation. (I.S)

If the direct speech contains a past historical event no changes are made.

“Tanganyika got independence in 1961,” my history teacher said. (D.S)

My history teacher said that Tanganyika got independence in 1961. (I.S)

“The first world war took place from 1914 to1918,” he said. (D.S)

He said that the First World War took place from 1914 to1918. (I.S)

“Mwalimu Nyerere was born in 1922 and he died in 1999,” he said to me. (D.S)

He told me that Mwalimu Nyerere was born in 1922 and he died in 1999.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Rule 3. Pronouns change in indirect speech.

First Person Pronouns in the D.S change according to the subject of the reporting verb in the I.S.

He said, “I am busy”          (D.S)

He said that he was busy.  (I.S)

She said, “I am not feeling okay” (D.S)

She said that she was not feeling okay (I.S)

I said, “I will tell you tomorrow” (D.S)

I said that I would tell him the next day. (I.S)

They said, “We have to use force” (D.S)

They said that they had to use force. (I.S)

We said, “We have to buy some oranges” (D.S)

We said that we had to buy some oranges. (I.S)

You said “I have finished the work.”

You said that you had finished the work

Second person pronouns in the D. S. change according to the object of the Reporting verb in the I.S.

He said to me, “You have to come with me” (D.S)

He told me that I had to go with him. (I.S)

The teacher said to us, “You must finish your work today”

The teacher told us that we had to finish our work that day.

She said to him, “You can take your bag” (D.S)

She told him that he could take his bag. (I.S)

He said to her, “You love your parents” (D.S)

He told her that she loved her parents (I.S)

The headmaster told them, “You will start your National exams next week” (D.S)

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The headmaster told them that they would start their national exams the following week. (I.S)

The teacher said to you “You must see me today” (D.S)

The teacher told you that you had to see him that day. (I.S)

Third Person Pronouns in the Direct speech remain unchanged in the Indirect speech.

He said, “She is a good girl” (D.S)

He said that she was a good girl. (I.S)

They said, “He does not have the required qualifications” (D.S)

They said that he did not have the required qualification. (I.S)

He said, “It is impossible” (D.S)

He said that it was impossible. (I.S)

She said, “They are attending a birthday party” (D.S)

She said that they were attending a birthday party. (I.S)

NOTE

It should be noted that while changing the pronouns in the manner stated above, pronouns will have the same case and number as the original one.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

STATEMENT/DECLARATIVE  (OR) ASSERTIVE SENTENCE
Basic Rules :

a)Remove the quotation marks in the statement

b)Use the conjunction ‘that’

c)Change the reporting verb ‘say to’ into ‘tell’

d)Change the reporting verb ‘said to’ into ‘told’

e)Other verbs like; replied, answered, informed, stated may be used instead of “said” or “told”.

Note :

He said that (correct)

He told me that (correct)

He told that (Incorrect)

“I will work hard to get division one,” said Lazar (D.S.)
Lazar said he would work hard to get division one. (I.S.)

“You can do this work” said Nelson to Johnsi (D.S.)
Nelson informed Johnsi that he could do that work. (I.S.)

He said, “I am glad to be here this evening”(D.S.)
He said that he was glad to be there that evening. (I.S.)

“I‘m going to the library now” said David (D.S.)
David said that he was going to the library then. (I.S.)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES (COMMAND OR REQUEST)

Basic Rules

a)Remove the quotation marks in an imperative sentence.

b)Use ‘to’ if it is an affirmative sentence. (Without don’t)

c)Use ‘not to’ if the sentence begins with “Don’t “

d)Don’t use that.

e)Omit the word ‘please’. Use the word “request’ instead of ‘say’

f)If the direct speech contains a request or a command, the reporting verb (say/said) change to tell, request, order, command, advise, beg, beseech, persuade, etc in its correct tense.

g)Sentences with “Let” can be turned into reported speech in three methods.

  • Suggest/Propose +gerund
  • Suggest/Propose +infinitive
  • Suggest/Propose +That clause

e.g “Let us setup a small scale industry”, my friend said to me. (D.S)

My friend suggested setting up a small scale industry. (I.S)

My friend proposed to set up a small scale industry (I.S)

My friend suggested that we should set up a small scale industry. (I.S)

Ø  “Don‘t talk in the class” said the teacher to the boys. (D.S.)

The teacher advised the boys not to talk in the class. (I.S.)

“Please give me something to eat. I am hungry” the old man said to them. (D.S.)
The old man requested them to give him something to eat and said that he was hungry (I.S.)

“Be careful” said he to her. (D.S.)
He ordered her to be careful. (I.S.)

“Bring me a cup of tea” said Nelson to Andriya. (D.S.)
Nelson asked Andriya to bring him a cup of tea. (I.S.)

“Go and get me a piece of paper”, I said to him. (D.S)

I ordered him to go and get me a piece of paper. (I.S)

“Don’t insult the poor”, he said to me (D.S)

He advised me not to insult the poor. (I.))

“Let me apply a different formula” he said. (D.S)

He suggested applying a different formula(I.S)

He proposed to apply a different formula(I.S)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE (QUESTIONS)

Basic Rules :

a)Remove the quotation marks and question mark in the interrogative sentence.

b)Use ‘if’ or ‘whether’ if the sentence inside the quotation marks begins with a helping verb (Auxiliary verb).

c)Use the given interrogative word (what, when, where, why, who, whom, whose, which, how ) if it does not begin with the helping verb.

d)Don‘t use ‘that’

e)Changing the reporting verb (say, said) into ‘ask’, ‘enquire’, demand, wonder, want to know, question, interrogate, in its correct tense.

f)Omit helping verb like ‘do, does, did’. But don’t omit them when they are with ‘not’.

“Won’t you help me to carry this box?” said I to my friend. (D.S.)
I asked my friend if he would not help me to carry that box. (I.S.)

Mohan said to Stalin, “Why did not you attend the meeting yesterday”? (D.S.)
Mohan interrogated Stalin why he had not attended the meeting the day before. (I.S.)

“How often do you go to the theatre?” said David to John. (D.S.)
David asked John how often he went to the theatre. (I.S.)

Mohamed said to Sultan, “Do you like mangoes?” (D.S.)

 Mohamed questioned Sultan if he liked mangoes. (I.S.)

“Who told you about my marriage?” Mary said to me.(D.S)

Mary questioned me who told me about her marriage.(I.S)

“Where do you want to go now?” he said to me. (D.S)

He asked me where I wanted to go then. (I.S)

“Don’t you know anything about the micro-chips in computers?” the teacher said to me (D.S)

The expert questioned me whether I didn’t know anything about the micro-chips in computers.(I.S)

“Didn’t you tell her about her father’s death?” he said to me. (D.S)

He asked me whether I didn’t tell her about her father’s death. (I.S)

He asked me whether I hadn’t told her about her father’s death. (I.S)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

Basic Rules :

a)Change the exclamatory sentence into statement or Assertive

b)Remove the quotation marks and exclamatory mark.

c)Use the conjunction ‘that’

d)Omit the interjections such as Oh, O, Alas, how, what, hurrah, shit, Gosh, Bravo, lo.

e)Add the word ‘very’ to the adjective or adverb if necessary.

f)If the verb is not given, use ‘Be’ form verb (is, was, are, were, am) in its correct tense according to the subject.

g)Change the reporting verb (say, said) to ‘exclaimed joyfully’ or exclaimed with joy/applaud/surprise for happy incidents.

h)Use ‘exclaim’ sorrowfully or exclaimed with sorrow/ fear/anger/wonder/regret/curse/cry out for sorrowful incidents.

1. “O, what a beautiful flower that is!” said she. (D.S.)
She exclaimed joyfully that that was a very beautiful flower. (I.S.)

2. “What a horrible sight!” we all exclaimed. (D.S.)
We all exclaimed with sorrow that it was a very horrible sight. (I.S.)

3. “Alas! I have broken my brother’s watch” said he.
He exclaimed with regret that he had broken his brother’s watch. (I.S.)

4. “How beautiful she is!” said Boon. (D.S.)
Boon exclaimed joyfully that she was very beautiful. (I.S.)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

REPORTED SPEECH – MIXED TYPE

“I don’t know the way. Do you?” he asked. (D.S.)
He said that he didn’t know the way and asked her if she did. (I.S.)

She said, “Oh! It’s a snake. Don’t go near it, children.” (D.S.)
She exclaimed with disgust that it was a snake and told the children not to go near it. (I.S.)

“If the floods get any worse we must leave the house”, he said. (D.S.)
(must = will have to)
He said that if the floods got any worse they would have to leave the house. (I.S.)

“I have just received a letter”, he said; “I must go home at once”. (D.S.)
He said that he had just received a letter and would have to go home at once. (I.S.)

(i) In all these sentences the reported part has more than one clause and tense. So both the parts need attention to be converted into the Indirect speech from the Direct. This type of sentence is called Mixed Type.

(ii) When statements and questions are mixed, each section must be introduced by an appropriate verb, viz. tell, say, explain, remark etc., for statements and ask, enquire, want to know, wonder etc., for questions. A useful connective device for positive statement is “adding that”…

e.g. “I’m off to the pictures. Where are you going?” (D.S.)
He said that he was off to the pictures and wanted to know where I was going. (I.S.)

MORE EXAMPLES OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH:

He said, “John will be in London on Tuesday.” (D.S.)
He said that John would be in London on Tuesday. (I.S.)

“I never eat meat”, he explained. (D.S.)
He explained that he never ate meat. (I.S.)

He said, “I wish I knew.”(D.S.)
He said that He wished he knew. (I.S.)

She says, “I shall be there.” (D.S.)
She says that she will be there. (I.S.)

He said, “She is coming this week.” (D.S.)
He said that she was coming that week. (I.S.)

He said, “I bought this pearl for my mother.” (D.S.)
He said that he had bought that pearl for his mother. (I.S.)

He said, “Where is she going?” (D.S.)
He asked where she was going. (I.S.)

He said, “Lucy, when is the next bus.” (D.S.)
He asked Lucy when the next bus was. (I.S.)

“Is anyone there?” she asked. (D.S.)
She asked if anyone was there. (I.S.)

The mother said, “Lie down, David.” (D.S.)
The mother asked David to lie down. (I.S.)

He said, “Don’t move, boys.” (D.S.)
He asked the boys not to move. (I.S.)

He said, “Please say nothing about this.” (D.S.)
He asked her to say nothing about that. (I.S.)

The teacher has said to the pupils, “Sea-water is different from the river water.” (D.S.)
The teacher has told the pupils that sea-water is different from river water. (I.S.)

David answered, “The Mines are under the ground”. (D.S.)
David answered that the Mines are under the ground. (I.S.)

John said to his brother, “The U.N.O. is a world organisation”. (D.S.)
John told his brother that the U.N.O. is a world organisation. (I.S.)

The Science teacher told the class, “Ice floats on water.” (D.S.)
The Science teacher told the class that ice floats on water(I.S.)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

EXERCISES

STATEMENTS

These people are saying these things. Report them, usingsays that.

Paul: “Atlanta is a wonderful city.”

Ruth: “I go jogging every morning.”

Anna: “Jenny isn’t studying for her exams.”

Andrew: “I used to be very fat.”

Jim: “I can’t swim.”

People made these statements. Report them, usingsaid.

“Mary works in a bank”, Jane said.

“I’m staying with some friends”, Jim said.

“I’ve never been to Russia”, Mike said.

“Tom can’t use a computer”, Ella said.

“Everybody must try to do their best”, Jill said.

“Jane may move to a new flat”, Rachel said.

“I’ll stay at home on Sunday”, Bill said.

Report what the guests said at a wedding last Sunday.

Miss Moore: “They’ll make a lovely couple.”

Mr Smith: “They’re going to live in Brighton.”

Mrs Jones: “The bride and the groom are very nice young people.”

Mr Roberts: “The bride is wearing a beautiful wedding dress.”

Mr Clarke: “The couple’s parents look happy.”

Miss Mayall: “The bride’s father has bought them a big flat.”

Change the following statements into the reported speech.

“I have something to show you”, I said to her.

“I’m going away tomorrow”, he said.

“I’ve been in London for a month but I haven’t had time to visit the Tower”, said Rupert.

“I’ll come with you as soon as I’m ready”, she replied.

“We have a lift but very often it doesn’t work”, they said

“I must go to the dentist tomorrow”, he said.

“I found an old Roman coin in the garden yesterday and I am going to take it to the museum this afternoon”, he said.

Write these sentences in indirect speech.

“I’m very tired”, she said.

“I’ll see them soon”, he said.

“I’m going to the cinema”, she said.

“I see the children quite often”, he said.

“I’m having a bath”, she said.

“I’ve already met their parents”, she said.

“I stayed in a hotel for a few weeks”, she said.

“He must go home to make dinner”, he said.

“I haven’t been waiting long”, she said.

“I’m listening to the radio”, he said.

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“I’ll tell them the news on Saturday”, she said.

“I like swimming, dancing and playing tennis”, he said.

“I can drive”, she said.

“I walked home after the party”, he said.

“I’m going to be sick”, she said.

“I must go out to post a letter”, he said.

“I spoke to Jane last week”, she said.

“I’m trying to listen to the music”, he said.

“I’ll phone the office from the airport”, she said.

“I can’t speak any foreign languages”, he said.

Write these sentences in indirect speech, changing words where necessary.

“I’ll see you tomorrow”, she said.

“I saw her today”, he said.

“I don’t like this film”, she said.

She said, “We went swimming today.”

“I met her about three months ago”, he said.

“I’ll see Mary on Sunday”, she said.

“Pete and Sue are getting married tomorrow”, she said.

“Stephen’s bringing some records to the party tomorrow”, she said.

“I really like this furniture”, she said.

“My parents are arriving tomorrow”, she said.

“We visited her this morning” they said.

“We’ll see her next summer” they said.

“They were here three months ago”, he said.

“I’m meeting them at four o’clock today”, he said.

“I can see you tomorrow”, she said.

INERROGATIVE (QUESTIONS )

Report the police-officer’s questions to the shop owner.

What’s your name?

Did you see the robbers?

What were they wearing?

How do you think they got in?

What did they take?

Has this ever happened before?

Write these sentences as reported questions using the words given.

“What’s your name?”, he asked. (Wanted to know)

“Do you like Marlon Brandon?”, she asked.

“How old are you?”, she said. (asked)

“When does the train leave?”, I asked.

“Are you enjoying yourself?”, he asked.

“How are you?”, he said. (asked)

“Does your father work here?”, she asked.

“Do you live near your father?”, he asked.

“Who did you see at the meeting?”, my mother asked.

“Why did you take my wallet?”, he asked.

“How did you get to school?”, she asked.

“Are you a foreigner?”, she asked.

“Where do you live?”, the boy asked.

“Have you met Danny before?”, he asked.

“Are you hungry?”, he asked.

“Why wasn’t Judy at the party?”, she asked.

“Why didn’t you telephone?”, my father asked.

“Did you borrow my dictionary?”, he asked.

“Why are you so late?”, the teacher asked.

“Have you finished your exams?”, she asked.

“Did you invite Judy and Mitch?”, he asked.

“Does your brother live in London?”, she asked.

“Why didn’t the police report the crime?”, the judge asked.

“Do you know who broke the window?”, he asked.

“Why you won’t let me in?” he shouted.

Rewrite these sentences in reported speech.

“Make some coffee, Bob”, Carol said.(ask)

“You must do the homework soon, Jane”, she said.(tell)

“Remember to buy a map, Ann” he said.(remind)

“You should see a doctor, Mrs Clark”, he said.(advise)

“Keep all the windows closed, Bill” they said.(warn)

“Go home, Paul”, Francis said.(tell)

“Please stay for supper, Bob”, he said.(try to persuade)

Report the following sentences.

“Don’t try to be funny.”

“Wait here till I come.”

“Go to bed and don’t get up till you’re called.”

“Be a good girl and sit quietly for five minutes.”“Watch the milk and don’t let it boil over.”

“Don’t take your coat off.”

“Don’t forget to thank Mrs. Jones when you’re saying good bye to her.”

“Stop that dog.”

Write the sentences in reported speech using the words given.

“Sit down, Mary.” (he told)

“Would you pass my suitcase?” (he asked)

“Don’t go near the sea, children.” (the children’s mother warned)

“Don’t be late, Tim.” (Tim’s father told)

“Be quiet, children.” (The librarian told)

“Have your tickets ready, please.” (the inspector told us)

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

SAY AND TELL
Use the correct form of SAY and TELL in these sentences.

She _______________________ me she didn’t agree.

He _______________________ , “Have we met before?”

I _______________________ them I wasn’t happy with their work.

She smiled and _______________________ to me, “I’m very pleased to meet you.”

She _______________________ me a story about her parents.

He _______________________, “Are you feeling OK?”

I didn’t hear. What did he _______________________?

Could you _______________________ me the time, please?

They _______________________ me they were going to a meeting.

I _______________________ the police my address.

I _______________________ I wanted to buy a magazine.

He _______________________ he wasn’t interested in politics.

Could you _______________________ me your name again?

Do you think he is _______________________ the truth?

Would you _______________________ him to come early tomorrow?

If he _______________________ that again there’ll be trouble.

I _______________________ them it was dangerous to swim here.

Did you _______________________ anything to him about your problem at work?

_______________________ me what happened.

I think he is _______________________ lies.

The policeman _______________________ the man was lying.

Philip _______________________ it would probably rain tomorrow.

Susan _______________________, “Let’s go out for dinner tonight.”

Jim _______________________ me about the party last night.

Our teacher _______________________ he was pleased with our work.

Stop _______________________ lies!

OFFERS AND SUGGESTIONS

Rewrite the sentences with the gerund or the infinitive in reported speech.

  1. “I’ll bring my CDs to the party.”

He promised to bring his CDs to the party.

  1. “Let’s go to the cinema tonight, shall we?

She suggested

  1. “Yes, I stole the wallet.”

He admitted

  1. “Be careful! The water is boiling.”

She warned us

  1. “You must apologize to your teacher.”

My father insisted (on)

[NEW] Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal | direct speech and indirect speech คือ – NATAVIGUIDES

Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal – Dalam kalimat baik secara lisan maupun tulisan ada yang namanya kalimat langsung dan kalimat tidak langsung. Istilah tersebut dalam Bahasa Inggris disebut sebagai direct and indirect speech. Mengetahui penggunaan direct and indirect speech diperlukan agar dapat memami konteks percakapan dengan benar. Lalu bagaimana ya Grameds membedakan keduanya dan kapan mengguanakannya? Yuk simak sampai selesai!

Pengertian Direct Speech

Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal 2Direct speech (kalimat langsung) ialah kata-kata atau kalimat yang diucapkan langsung oleh pembicara (orang pertama) dan ditulis apa adanya.
Contoh:
She says, “ I am a clever student.”
Dia berkata, “Saya seorang murid yang pandai.”

Hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan pada bentuk Direct Speech, yaitu:
a. Reporting Verb (yang melaporkan) dan Reported Words (yang dilaporkan) dipisahkan dengan tanda koma (,).
b. Reported Words dalam kalimat langsung ditulis dalam tanda kutip.
c. Reporting Verb bisa juga disebut Reporting Sentence (kalimat pelapor), Reported Words dapat disebut Reported Speech (kalimat yang dilaporkan).
d. Letak Reporting Verb tidak harus di awal kalimat, tetapi bisa berada di akhir kalimat. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:

He said, “It is time to go away.”
Dia berkata, “Sudah tiba waktunya untuk pergi.”

He said : Reporting verb, “It’s time to go away.” : Reported words

Bisa Menjadi:

“It is time to go away,” He said.
“Sudah tiba waktunya untuk pergi,” Dia berkata.

“It’s time to go away.” : Reported words, He said : Reporting verb

Dalam membuat direct speech yang baik, Grameds harus menguasai grammar bahasa Inggris terlebih dahulu melalui buku The 1st Student’s Choice : Complete English Grammar, Tata Bahasa Inggris Lengkap.

Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal 3

Pengertian Indirect Speech

Indirect speech (kalimat tak langsung) ialah kalimat yang diucapkan untuk menyampaikan pernyataan seseorang.
Contoh:
She says that he is a clever student.
Dia berkata bahwa dia seorang murid yang pandai.

Hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam kalimat tak langsung, yaitu:
a. Antara Reporting Verb dengan Reported Words dihubungkan oleh kata penghubung (conjunction).
b. Dalam kalimat tak langsung (Indirect Speech), tanda kutip (quotation marks) tidak diperlukan.

Bentuk-bentuk Indirect Speech

Indirect Speech dapat dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu:

a. Bentuk kalimat tidak langsung yang kata pengantarnya dalam bentuk Present Tense, maka kalimat langsungnya tidak mengalami perubahan tense.
Contoh:
She says, “I am a clever student.”
Dia berkata, “Saya seorang murid yang pandai.”

b. Bentuk kalimat tidak langsung yang kata pengantarnya dalam bentuk Past Tense, maka kalimatnya mengalami perubahan, yakni tense, kata ganti orang, serta keterangan tempat.

Indirect Speech berhubungan dengan penggunaan past tense, yang dapat Grameds pelajari pada buku Belajar Tenses Gampang Lewat Cerita, Tenses Thru Stories+cd yang ada di bawah ini.

Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal 4

Perubahan Keterangan Waktu

1. Adverb of Time

now menjadi then
today menjadi that day
yesterday menjadi the day before, the previous day
last night menjadi the night before
last week menjadi the week before
a week ago menjadi a week before
a month ago menjadi a month before
tomorrow menjadi the following day, the next day
next week menjadi the following week
next month menjadi the following month
next year menjadi the following year

2. Adverb of Place

here menjadi there
this menjadi that
these menjadi those

Dalam mempelajari adverb, tenses, peribahasa, ungkapan, dan cara membaca dalam bahasa Inggris, Grameds dapat menemukan semua hal tersebut dalam Kamus Inggris-Indonesia, Indonesia-Inggris.

Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal 5

Perubahan dari Direct Speech menjadi Indirect Speech

A. Pernyataan (Statement)
– Sebuah kalimat pernyataan menggunakan kata pengantar

– Bila pembicara melaporkan kembali apa yang dibicarakan oleh orang lain, maka kata benda
dalam kalimat tersebut harus berubah.
Direct Speech:
Ana says to nana, “I am late.”
Ana berkata ke Nana, “Saya terlambat.”
Indirect Speech:
Ana says to Nana that she is late.
Ana berkata ke Nana bahwa dia terlambat.

– Bila pembicara melaporkan dirinya sendiri, maka kata ganti orang (I, My, Me) tetap.
Direct Speech:
I said, “I will leave the country.”
Indirect Speech:
I said I would leave the country.

B. Pertanyaan (Question)
1. Pertanyaan diawali dengan kata tanya: who (siapa), what (apa), when (kapan), where (di mana), dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut:

– Kata tanya tetap dipakai dalam pertanyaan tidak langsung.

– Susunan pertanyaan tak langsung menggunakan susunan kalimat pernyataan, bukan dalam kalimat tanya.

– Perubahan bentuk waktu (tenses) mengikuti ketentuan seperti biasa sebagaimana bentuk waktu pada kalimat tak langsung yang berasal dari pernyataan.
Contoh:
Direct Speech (DS):
Ronal said to Aning, “What are you doing?”
Ronal berkata kepada Aning, “Apa yang sedang kamu lakukan?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
Ronal asked Aning what she was doing.
Ronal bertanya kepada Aning apa yang sedang dia lakukan.
Direct Speech (DS):
He wanted to know, “How did you do this?”
Dia ingin mengetahui, “Bagaimana caranya kamu melakukan ini?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He wanted to know how I had done that.
Dia ingin mengetahui bagaimana caranya saya telah melakukan itu.

2. Pertanyaan tanpa menggunakan kata tanya, dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut:

– Menggunakan if atau whether dalam pertanyaan tak langsung.

– Susunan pertanyaan menggunakan susunan kalimat pernyataan (statement). Contoh:
Direct Speech (DS):
Rani asked me, “Can you help me?”
Rani bertanya kepada saya, “Bisakah kamu membantu saya?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
Rani asked me if (whether) I could help her.
Rani bertanya kepada saya apakah saya bisa membantunya.
Direct Speech (DS):
He asked me, “Are you very busy?”
Dia bertanya kepada saya, “Apakah kamu sangat sibuk?”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He asked me if I was very busy.
Dia bertanya pada saya apakah saya sangat sibuk.

Notes:

1. Susunan Anak Kalimat Tak Langsung (Indirect Speech) bentuk Question, selalu “Statement”.
Dengan pola:
– Tanpa Kata Tanya: If/Whether (Apakah) + S + P
– Dengan Kata Tanya: Kata Tanya + S + P

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2. Sama dengan aturan Statement, yaitu:
– Kalau induk kalimatnya present, tidak ada perubahan tenses.
– Kalau kalimatnya Past, ada perubahan tenses.
– Kalau anak kalimatnya menggunakan kata-kata: would, should, might, ought to, used to dan had better, tak ada perubahan tenses.

C. Perintah/Permintaan (Imperative/Request)
Ketentuan yang perlu diperhatikan:
1. Apabila Reported Words (kata-kata yang dilaporkan) merupakan kalimat perintah/permintaan, maka Reporting Verb (kata kerja yang melaporkan) yang berupa say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang menandakan, antara lain:
– Command (perintah), misalnya: ordered, commanded yang berarti menyuruh atau memerintahkan.
– Precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, didikan), misalnya: advised yang berarti menasihati.
– Request (permohonan), misalnya: asked yang berarti meminta atau memohon.
– Entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak), misalnya: begged yang berarti meminta atau memohon (dengan sangat).
– Prohibition (larangan), misalnya: forbade yang berarti melarang.

2. Menggunakan kata kerja (verb) bentukIatau To Infinitive pada kalimat tak langsung.
3. Tambahkan kata please yang dipakai untuk mengatakan perintah yang lebih sopan.
4. Menggunakan not + to infinitive untuk perintah (command) atau larangan (prohibition).
5. Kata ganti berubah dalam diri orang pertama (first person) dan orang kedua (second person) menjadi orang ketiga (third person).
Contoh:
I -> He or She
We -> They
You -> Me, He, She, or They

Contoh:
– Command (perintah)
Direct Speech (DS):
She said to her servant, “Go away at once.”
Dia berkata kepada pembantunya, “Pergi segera.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
She ordered her servant to go away at once.
Dia menyuruh pembantunya untuk segera pergi.
– Precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, didikan)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his young brother, “Study hard.”
Dia berkata kepada adiknya, “Belajarlah dengan giat.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He advised his young brother to study hard.
Dia menasihati adiknya untuk belajar dengan giat.
– Request (permohonan)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his friend, “Please come to my house.”
Dia berkata kepada temannya, “Silakan datang ke rumahku.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He asked his friend to come to his house.
Dia memohon temannya untuk datang ke rumah.
– Entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his master, “Pardon me, Sir.”
Dia berkata pada majikannya, “Maafkan saya, Tuan.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He begged his master to pardon him.
Dia memohon dengan sangat kepada majikannya untuk memaafkannya.
– Prohibition (larangan)
Direct Speech (DS):
He said to his sister, “Don’t go there.”
Dia berkata pada saudaranya, “Jangan pergi ke sana.”
Indirect Speech (IS):
He forbade his sister to go there.
Dia melarang saudaranya untuk pergi ke sana.

Contoh Direct and Indirect Speech

Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal 61. Contoh Direct Speech (Kalimat Langsung) dalam Bahasa Inggris

He said, “I will come here” (Dia berkata, “Saya akan datang kesini”)

She says to her friend, “I have been waiting” (Dia berkata pada temannya, “Saya sudah menunggu”)

He said to me, “Where are you going?” (Dia berkata pada saya, “Kemana kamu akan pergi?”)

“You must not forget what i told you”, Dani said (“Kamu tidak boleh lupa apa yang saya katakan padamu”, Kata Dani)

“I will ask Mr. Harris about that word”, Tiara told me (“Saya akan bertanya kepada Mr. Harris tentang kalimat tersebut”, Kata Tiara padaku)

You said, “He is a teacher” (Kamu berkata, “Dia seorang guru”)

Dewi said, “I want to eat pasta” (Dewi berkata, “Saya ingin makan pasta)

“We can speak Korean”, They said (“Kami bisa berbahasa Korea”, kata mereka)

2. Contoh Indirect Speech (Kalimat Tidak Langsung) dalam Bahasa Inggris

She asked him to help her (Dia memintanya untuk menolong dia)

She advised Bili not to be lazy (Dia menyarankan Bili agar tidak malas)

Rani asked me whether i was going away that day (Rani bertanya padaku apakah aku akan pergi saat itu)

Mama said that she would go there (Mama berkata bahwa ia akan pergi)

Desi ordered her friend to go away at once (Desi meminta temannya untuk pergi)

She said that she had to do her homework (Dia berkata bahwa dia harus menyelesaikan PR nya)

Dad said that he had written a letter (Ayah berkata bahwa dia telah menuliskan surat)

Fasha said that he would call me (Fasha berkata bahwa dia akan menelepon saya)

Contoh Soal Direct and Indirect Speech

Beragam latihan soal bahasa Inggris dapat Grameds temukan pada buku All New Big Book TOEFL+CD yang dapat membantu kamu dalam menguji seberapa baik kemampuan membaca, mendengar, berbicara, menulis dalam bahasa Inggris yang kamu miliki.

Materi Direct & Indirect Speech: Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh Kalimat dan Soal 7

beli sekarang

1. Which of the following sentences is correctly punctuated?
a. The headmaster warned the students, ‘pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month’.
b. The headmaster warned the students: pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month.
c. The headmaster warned the students, ‘pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month!’
d. The headmaster warned the students, pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month.
e. The headmaster warned the students, pay your school fee not later than the tenth every month!

Pembahasan : Penulisan tanda baca pada direct speech yang benar adalah diapit tanda petik (‘) atau kutip (“) dan huruf pertama dari kalimat langsung harus dalam kapital (huruf besar), tanda seru di akhir kalimat direct speech menunjukkan jenis kalimat perintah (command).

2. The secretary asked me … with Mr. Slamet.
a. did I have an appointment
b. how was my appointment
c. whether I had an appointment
d. when is my appointment
e. that I had an appointment

Pembahasan: Indirect speech yang berasal dari interrogative (pernyataan) dan tidak, susunannya selalu affirmative (pernyataan) dan tidak menggunakan kata kerja bantu sebelum subjeknya, maka A, B, dan D salah. Interrogative indirect speech selalu menggunakan kata tanya kunci jawaban dan pembahasan atau if atau whether sebagai kata hubung dan ini hanya dipenuhi oleh (C) whether I had an appointment.

3. … is not yet known.
a. Can he be involved in the trade of narcotics
b. He is involved in the trade of narcotics
c. Whether he is involved in the trade of narcotics
d. When he is involved in the trade of narcotics
e. Why is he involved in the trade of narcotics

Pembahasan: Ini adalah soal tentang reported speech. … is not yet known = … belum diketahui. Yang paling sesuai dengan kalimat di soal adalah whether = whether he is involved … is not yet known (Apakah dia terlibat … belum diketahui)

 

4. He said, “Don’t speak until you are spoken to.”
The indirect speech of the statement above is …
A. He didn’t tell me to speak until i am spoken to
B. He told me not to speak until i am spoken to
C. He told me not to speak until i was spoken to
D. He told me not to speak until i was spoken to
E. He didn’t tell me to speak until i was spoken to

Pembahasan: Untuk kalimat tidak langsung dari suatu larangan, dapat dilakukan hanya dengan menambahkan NOT TO di depan kalimat, dan apabila kalimat langsungnya berupa present tense, maka kalimat tidak langsungnya menjadi past tense.

5. Mr. Johnson asked Mary, “When can you finish the letter?”
Mr. Johnson asked Mary …
A. When can you finish the letter
B. When can she finish the letter
C. When you can finish the letter
D. When she could finish the letter
E. If she could finish the letter

Pembahasan: Apabila kalimat langsung menggunakan kata tanya WH Question+How, maka kalimat tidak langsungnya tetap menggunakan kata tanya yang sama, hanya tenses-nya yang berubah. Present tense menjadi past tense dan susunan kalimat pertanyaan pada kalimat langsung berubah jadi pernyataan pada kalimat tidak langsung.

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REPORTED SPEECH orders, requests, suggestions | direct and indirect speech | HOW TO ENGLISH


Learn about reported orders, requests, and statements!
In this video you will learn what orders, requests, and statements are, and how to correctly report them in indirect speech. You will also learn how to report requests for objects.
If you’d like to learn about reported statements and questions, I suggest you watch this playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Qd2vpc58wU\u0026list=PL77zejvXDySLFM7ay7LLOgo3OK1sykwq
As usual, you can practice what you learn with my quiz questions and exercises. For more exercises, visit my ETSY SHOP: https://www.etsy.com/shop/HowToEnglish
Watch these videos to master your English grammar:
HOW TO ENGLISH Passive voice
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0Hoxlf53bU
HOW TO ENGLISH Causatives
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSZAjG4WASM
HOW TO ENGLISH Articles in English
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkVXyILHzp8

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูความรู้เพิ่มเติมที่นี่

REPORTED SPEECH orders, requests, suggestions | direct and indirect speech | HOW TO ENGLISH

|| Direct and Indirect Speech in questions|| Reporting questions| Change direct speech into indirect


In this section reporting questions.
Change direct speech into indirect speech
High school grammar.
Direct and indirect speech
Tenses
Simple present
present continuous
present perfect
Simple past
Past continuous
Past perfect
Active and passive voice in different tenses
High school composition
Letter format
Model letters
Dairy Entry
Self introduction for kids
How to answer, introduce yourselves for interviewee
Simple sentence construction
Auxiliary verbs
Reading practice
Writing practice
Speaking practice
Vocabulary basic 450 words
Sentence making structure
Spoken English section
Some vlog related to son’ birthday
Ik celebration vlog

|| Direct and Indirect Speech in questions|| Reporting questions| Change direct speech into indirect

REPORTED SPEECH | INDIRECT SPEECH | DIRECT SPEECH – statements, questions, commands


REPORTED SPEECH | INDIRECT SPEECH | DIRECT SPEECH
Hi Everyone,
In today’s lesson, let’s look at REPORTED SPEECH (aka INDIRECT SPEECH) in detail.
We’ll look at:
1. direct speech
2. backshifting (what???)
3. reporting verbs
4. modal verbs
5. reported questions
6. reported commands
One of the most important aspects of reported speech is ‘backshifting’.
This is moving a tense one step backwards. (I’ll leave a list for you below!)

Thank you so much for watching this video and don’t forget to leave me a comment with an example sentence!
If you SUBSCRIBE to my channel and turn on those NOTIFICATIONS, you’ll never miss a lesson.
SUPPORT my channel: https://kofi.com/arnel
INSTAGRAM: https://www.instagram.com/arnelseverydayenglish/
FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/ArnelsEverydayEnglish/
I hope this lesson is helpful! Thank you very much for watching 😊
Arnel
__
BACKSHIFTING THE 12 TENSES
present simple becomes PAST simple
present continuous becomes PAST continuous
present perfect – past perfect
present perf. cont. – past perfect continuous
past simple – past perfect
past continuous – past perfect continuous
past perfect – stays the same
past perf. cont. – stays the same
future simple (will) – would
future continuous – would be + ing
future perfect – would have + past participle
future perf. cont. – would have been + ing
__
BACKSHIFTING MODALS
will – would
can – could
may (possibility) – might
may (permission) – could
must (obligation) had to
must (speculation) – stays the same
would – stays the same
might – stays the same
could – stays the same
should – stays the same
See you soon 😉

REPORTED SPEECH | INDIRECT SPEECH | DIRECT SPEECH - statements, questions, commands

Direct and Indirect Questions in English


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What are Indirect Questions?
Direct questions are the “normal” questions that we can ask friends, family members, and people who we know well. You can form direct questions using the QUASM model that we learned last lesson.
Example of a direct question:
“Where’s the bathroom?”
Indirect questions are a little more formal and polite. We use them when talking to a person we don’t know very well, or in professional situations, and their form is a little different.
Example of an indirect question:
“Could you tell me where the bathroom is?”
Phrases for Indirect Questions
Could you tell me…
Do you know…
I was wondering…
Do you have any idea…
I’d like to know…
Would it be possible…
Is there any chance…

Direct and Indirect Questions in English

Reported Speech 5- Reporting questions


In this video you will learn about how to report questions. you will learn what changes to make when changing a question from a direct to an indirect question.
Reported speech/ direct speech / indirect speech / English grammar / grammar / English lessons / learn English / study English / time and place expressions changes / time and place expressions transformations / discour direct / discour indirect / الكلام المنقول / direct question / indirect question / reporting questions / how to report questions Created using Powtoon Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon’s animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.

Reported Speech 5- Reporting questions

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่LEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGE

ขอบคุณมากสำหรับการดูหัวข้อโพสต์ direct speech and indirect speech คือ

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