relative clause: คุณกำลังดูกระทู้
Anyone who’s interested in learning the fundamentals of the English language knows how complex the underlying concept of grammar and sentence structures can be.
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Words aren’t just a group of letters joined together, but they serve as a primary element in developing a sentence. We use words to form sentences, sentences to compose paragraphs, and paragraphs to construct essay writings. But between the simple sentences and complex sentences that constitute our paragraphs, comes a group of related words containing a subject and a predicate or verb: clauses.
Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clause Example
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Exercise on Relative Clause Example
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Free Relative Clause Worksheet Example
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What You Should Know about Clauses
It’s easy to recognize a clause when you see one. For instance, though a close does not end with a punctuation, it can express a complete or an incomplete thought.
There are two main types of clauses: the independent clause and the dependent clause. An independent clause (or a main clause) follows a Subject + Verb = Complete Thought pattern. Take note that every sentence must consist of at least one main clause. Otherwise, it may be considered as a sentence fragment.
A dependent clause (or a subordinate clause), on the other hand, consists of a group of words with both a subject and a verb that do not convey a complete thought. Instead, it follows a unique pattern with a Subordinating Conjunction + Subject + Verb = Incomplete Thought. Since a dependent clause can never stand on its own, it must be joined with a main clause to communicate a sensible message to its receiver. You may also see clause examples.
Additionally, subordinate clauses are also classified into three different categories, namely noun clauses, adverb clauses, and relative or adjective clauses, which shall be discussed later on in the article.
To understand how these clauses are used, let’s take a look at the following examples:
Cameron is older than his sister.
The example above is an independent clause that can also be classified as a simple sentence. To turn this clause into a dependent clause, you can add subordinating conjunction or a dependent word to the beginning of the clause such as:
Because Cameron is older than his sister
Once the conjunction “because” is added to the clause, it no longer makes sense knowing that there is something missing in the expression. To fix this, you can either remove the conjunction or attach a main clause to the example. You may also like subordinate clause examples.
Because Cameron is older than his sister, he likes to boss her around.
By combining an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses, you can turn a simple sentence into a complex sentence similar to the example provided above.
Printable Relative Clause Worksheet Example
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Relative Clause Example
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Relative Clause Exercise Example
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Relative Clause Sample Worksheet
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What Is a Relative Clause?
A relative clause is a dependent clause used to provide additional information in a sentence by defining the noun given. This may also be referred to as an adjective clause, an adjectival clause, or a relative construction. This usually adapts, describes, or modifies a noun or a noun phrase, and is introduced by a relative pronoun (that, which, who, whom, whose) or a relative adverb (why, when, where). You may also see subordinate clause examples.
Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses
When defining a relative clause, it’s important to point its two primary types: the defining (or restrictive) relative clauses and the non-defining (or non-restrictive) relative clauses.
A defining relative clause supplies essential information about the noun to which it is referring to in the sentence. One thing to take note of is that the clause cannot be taken away from the sentence without affecting its meaning; otherwise, the remaining words may communicate something different than what the writer intended. You may also like adverb clause examples.
Let’s take this for example.
It reminded him of the brownies that his grandmother used to bake.
If we eliminate the clause being highlighted in the sentence, though it would still convey a complete thought, the idea of the sentence would be less specific and it would not make actual sense. Instead, this would leave readers wondering, “What brownies did it remind him of?” You may also check out compound sentences – writing methods & examples.
On the contrary, non-defining relative clauses provide additional information about a noun. Since the clause is nothing more than a mere accessory in the sentence, it can be dropped without affecting the meaning or structure of the given general statement.
The items inside the vault, which is believed to consist of family heirlooms, were stolen by German thieves.
Once we remove the highlighted clause in the example, the sentence would still make perfect sense. Providing a bit of background context about the noun is a common strategy that writers use to describe a noun even further without changing the overall though of a sentence. You may also see balanced sentences — usage and examples.
Take note that we can easily distinguish a defining relative clause from a non-defining relative clause by the simple use of a comma. If a comma or commas are used to separate the clause from the rest of the sentence, then the clause is simply non-defining. Otherwise, it would be a defining relative clause. You may also like conditional sentence – definition and examples.
1. To Post-Modify a Noun
Relative clauses may be used in various ways. For one, we use relative clauses to post-modify a noun. This is done to provide specifics about the person or thing we are referring to in a sentence. The relative pronouns who, which, whose, and that are used to introduce these clauses. You may also check out exculpatory clause examples.
As a Subject
In this category, the relative pronoun IS the subject of the sentence, therefore we do not repeat the subject after it has already been mentioned.
- Isn’t that the guy who sat beside you in English Literature class?
- The firefighters said that the incident that happened last night was bound to happen.
- The radio reported that the bear which killed its keeper has been put down.
As an Object of a Clause
For this category, the relative pronoun acts as the object of the clause.
- You shouldn’t believe everything that you read on the Internet.
- The condo unit that we rented in Los Angeles was fully furnished.
- The weather was certainly the thing which I enjoyed most about our vacation.
In most cases, when a relative pronoun is the object of its clause, it’s acceptable to leave it out.
- You shouldn’t believe everything you read on the Internet.
- The condo unit we rented in Los Angeles was fully furnished.
- The weather was certainly the thing I enjoyed most about our vacation.
You might be interested in simple sentence examples.
As an Object of a Preposition
Once a relative pronoun is used as the object of a preposition in the sentence, the preposition is usually placed after the verb.
- Who was the man who you were talking to? OR Who was the man you were talking to?
- That’s the school that my sister goes to. OR That’s the school my sister goes to.
- I haven’t watched the movie which you were talking about. OR I haven’t watched the movie you were talking about.
Keep in mind that when the pronouns who, which, or whose are used in the sentence, they sometimes come at the beginning of the clause. You may also see fused sentence — examples and corrections.
2. Times and Places
The relative adverbs when and where to indicate time and place respectively are also highly recommended to provide clarity in the statement.
- Do you remember the place where we had our first date? OR Do you remember the place we had our first date?
- My mother’s birthday is the day when the Great Earthquake struck San Francisco. OR My mother’s birthday is the day the Great Earthquake struck San Francisco.
Even if the relative pronoun or relative adverb from each clause has been omitted, it can still be classified as a relative clause due to its function in the sentence. You may also like compound sentence—usage and examples.
3. To Provide Additional Information
As previously mentioned, a relative clause may be used to tell us something more about a person or thing being referred to in the sentence. The relative clause may be categorized as a defining or non-defining relative clause, depending on how it is used in the sentence. You may also check out cumulative sentence examples.
4. To Quantify with Relative Pronouns
We can also use quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns. This can be used as a subject, object, or object of a preposition.
She has three brothers, two of whom are doctors.
Expressions such as many of whom, most of whom, one of which, none of whom, some of which, lots of whom, and two of which are also examples of quantifiers and numbers combined with relative pronouns to form a relative clause. You might be interested in parallel sentences—structure and examples.
Relative Clause Worksheet Example
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Simple Relative Clause Worksheet Example
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Teaching Relative Clauses Example
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Examples of Relative Clauses
- I’m looking for a secretary that can work under pressure and use a computer well.
- She has a son who is in the army.
- We bought a mansion, which is 200 years old, for over a $10 million.
- I sent a postcard that arrived five weeks later.
- The woman that my brother is going to marry is from New Zealand.
- The caregiver who my grandpa liked lives in New Hampshire.
- My mother’s house, which I grew up in, was demolished the other day.
- The photographer called to Queen Elizabeth, who looked irritated by the gesture.
- Last week I bought a new mobile phone, which does not function now.
- My stepsister, who I grew up with, knows a lot about motorbikes and cars.
Learning the purpose and proper use of clauses gives us the opportunity to enhance our way of writing in more ways than one. Instead of writing paragraphs upon paragraphs of short sentences, we can easily write a more detailed composition that accurately expresses our thoughts in such a way that readers may still comprehend.
Going beyond one’s expectations in writing by joining different types of clauses together can help us connect with readers in a more accurate and interesting manner.
[Update] Relative clauses in English | relative clause – NATAVIGUIDES
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clauses in English
functions of relative clauses in English grammar
using the principal relative pronouns
For information on
, and on other relative pronouns or adjectives such
This page looks at standard, using the principal relative pronounsandFor information on, and on other relative pronouns or adjectives such asoror, see
Cette page en français: ►
relatives en anglais
1. Clauses with the
1.1. When the relative pronoun is
a clause and refers to a human,
who is replaced by that,
in American English and in spoken language:
is also quite possible.
After the antecedent those, is
almost always required:
However,is also quite possible.After the antecedentis almost always required:
1.2.If the relative is the subject
a clause and refers to an inanimate antecedent, or
must be used.
a clause, the relative pronoun
However, the relative clause can be completely
is on the table is mine
is quite impossible,
2. Clauses with the
Even if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause, it still
stands at the start of the clause.
When the relative pronoun is the direct object of
the clause, and refers to a human,
the pronoun used is either or .
Alternatively, the relative
be omitted, particularly in spoken language:
The relative, whether mentioned or not, is the only object of the
clause, and there can be no second object following the verb.
say or write :
Alternatively, the relative, particularly in spoken language:The relative, whether mentioned or not, is the only object of the clause, and there can be no second object following the verb.Thus wenor
is not used very often: ,
of the relative pronoun, are much more common.
When an is
referred to, the same rules apply, except that
is never used: it is replaced by .
are all possible
are all possible
when it is the object of
the relative clause, the relative pronoun can often be omitted,
particularly in written English. as in the
The relative pronoun as a possessive
required with both animate and inanimate antecedents: it is the only
of which can refer to animates
clauses starting with a
4.1. Note how to form relative clauses after prepositions:
preposition + which
inanimates or things,
for people. Stylistically, this is quite
when referring to
places or locations
can be replaced
referring to time,
generally preferred to
(moment / point)
In the town
I was born lived a man who
sailed to sea
(Beatles: Yellow Submarine)
4.2. If the relative pronoun is omitted, then the
preposition must come at the end of the clause. Omission of the
pronoun in examples like the ones below is actually by far the most
common usage in modern spoken English, and is also common in written
5. More complex
5.1 Preposition + possession:
5.2. Selective possession
5.1 Preposition + possession:5.2. Selective possession
and non-defining relative clauses.
relative clause (also called a restrictive or integrated
relative clause) is one which is
essential for the understanding of a statement.
who smash windows” will be arrested; but suggests that those who do not
smash windows will not be arrested. .
The word “protestors” in
this example is restricted by the relative clause that defines it.
Commas are not required before
and after the relative clause.
6.2. In a
relative clause (also called a non-restrictive
relative clause or a supplementary relative clause)
for an understanding of the sentence:
In the second, it is obvious that it is
cars in general
not cars from the late 19th century, that are a vital part of modern
The relative clause can be omitted without making
the sentence meaningless.
In cases like this,
before and after the relative clause.
Compare these two examples:
in relative clauses
- The relative pronoun
may be used in English, particularly American English, in
However use of
in defining clauses is an
not a rule, and a source of plenty of confusion.
Some grammar books suggest that
in defining relative clauses, and that
be used in non-defining relative clauses, but this is not true, not
even in American English, and countless quotes from the best authors
Don’t rely on grammar checkers that come with word-processing
Furthermore the grammar-check tool on Microsoft Word can be either
confusing or just wrong on this point. When the example above, was put through the MS Word grammar
checker, the group was
underlined, and the first “correction” suggested was:
this case, the grammar checker has replaced a perfectly acceptable
sentence, with the necessary commas, with a sentence that is
! Without commas, the relative clause becomes a
defining clause, and the sentence now implies that
which is clearly not the case.
which qualify a whole sentence
1.1. When the relative pronoun isof a clause and refers to a, the relative pronounis generally used.Sometimes,is replaced by, especially in American English and in spoken language:.If the relative is theof a clause and refers to anantecedent,ormust be used.:Asof a clause, the relative pronounHowever, the relative clause can be completely omitted:Even if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause, it still stands at the start of the clause.When the relative pronoun is theof the clause, and refers to a, the pronoun used is eitheroris not used very often:, or omission of the relative pronoun, are much more common.When anis referred to, the same rules apply, except thatis never used: it is replaced bywhen it is the object of the relative clause, the relative pronoun can often be omitted, particularlyas in the last example.is required with both animate and inanimate antecedents: it is thederivative ofwhich can refer to animatesinanimates:4.1. Note how to form relative clauses after prepositions:for inanimates or things,for people. Stylistically, this is quite formal., when referring tocan be replaced by; when referring to time,is generally preferred to4.2. If the relative pronoun is omitted, then the preposition must come at the end of the clause. Omission of the relative pronoun in examples like the ones below is actually by far the most common usage in modern spoken English, and is also common in written style.6.1. Arelative clause (also called aorrelative clause) is one which is essential for the understanding of a statement.The first example tells us that “protestors who smash windows” will be arrested; but suggests that those who dosmash windows willbe arrested. . The word “protestors” in this example is restricted by the relative clause that defines it.before and after the relative clause.6.2. In arelative clause (also called arelative clause or arelative clause) , the relative clause isessential for an understanding of the sentence:In the first of these examples, the question of age is not an essential bit of information.In the second, it is obvious that it is, not cars from the late 19th century, that are a vital part of modern life.The relative clause can be omitted without making the sentence meaningless.In cases like this,before and after the relative clause.Compare these two examples:However use ofinstead oforin defining clauses is an, not a rule, and a source of plenty of confusion.Some grammar books suggest thatorbe used in defining relative clauses, and thatbe used in non-defining relative clauses, but this is not true, not even in American English, and countless quotes from the best authors demonstrate this.Furthermore the grammar-check tool on Microsoft Word can be either confusing or just wrong on this point. When the example above,was put through the MS Word grammar checker, the groupwas underlined, and the first “correction” suggested was:
Sometimes we use a relative clause to qualify not just
a noun or pronoun, but a whole sentence or clause. In such cases, the
relative clause is introduced by which,never that
the relative pronoun
This point is dealt with above in the sections 2, 3 and 4 above.
Note in particular the question of omitting the relative pronoun in a
English grammar books sometimes say that it is
bad style to end a sentence with a
at the end of the clause, even if this is also the end of the sentence.
As stated above, omission of the relative pronoun in prepositional
relative clauses is normal style in modern English.
► Continue to part 2 :
This point is dealt with above in the sections 2, 3 and 4 above.Note in particular the question of omitting the relative pronoun in a prepositional
clause (point 4).English grammar books sometimes say that it is bad style to end a sentence with a preposition ; but this is just not true. On the contrary, when the relative pronounis omitted in a prepositional relative clause, the prepositioncome at the end of the clause, even if this is also the end of the sentence. As stated above, omission of the relative pronoun in prepositional relative clauses isin modern English.► Continue to part 2 : Relative pronouns and adjectives
9: for French
for information on expressing the French
relative pronoun “dont” in English..
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Relative Clauses شرح جمل الوصل
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RELATIVE CLAUSES in 4 Steps
Relative Clauses allow us to express more in a single sentence. Here are 4 steps to merging multiple sentences together.
Find this video’s companion resources at http://www.insightstoEnglish.com, including printouts, presentation materials, and further tips and tricks.
This video only covers NONDEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES.
How to Teach Relative Clauses:
If we have two related sentences, we can put them together into a single sentence by turning one of them into a relative clause. Here are the steps to do so:
1. find the noun used in both sentences
2. decide which clause is relative; put it after the other clause
3. delete the common noun from the relative clause
4. add a relative pronoun at the front of the relative clause.
Finally, separate the two clauses with commas.
Relative pronouns include ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘where’, ‘when’, and ‘whose’.
We use relative clauses to make our speech/writing sound smoother (and therefore more natural). Relative clauses allow us to give more information about the main clause.
0:00 Intro to Clauses
0:27 What are Relative Clauses?
0:49 Shared Nouns \u0026 Relative Pronouns
2:21 The 4 Steps to Putting Clauses Together
5:18 Misplaced Modifiers
6:17 Not Just for Nouns
7:03 When Do We Use Relative Clauses?
For another stepbystep transformation, check out our video on Passive Voice: https://youtu.be/_PCCZ9Pvk2s
[good for nativespeaking learners as well as ESL or EFL students]
Let us know in the comments how the method in this video has helped you and your students with relative clauses!
INSIGHTS TO ENGLISH creates videos and other resources to share alternate perspectives on various grammar topics. Presenting various approaches ensures that no student is left in the dark.
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Stop Making Mistakes with Relative Clauses! [Which \u0026 That]
WHICH or THAT… \u0026 Relative Clauses! When should you use ‘which’ and ‘that’? Let’s talk about it!
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Relative Clauses | ENGLISH GRAMMAR VIDEOS
Relative pronouns and relative clauses connect two ideas into one sentence. Defining relative clauses don´t use commas and provide necessary information to understand the sentence. Nondefining relative clauses use commas ,,,, and give extra infomation but not necessary information to understand the sentence. They are easy to learn! Watch the video a couple of times and learn to use correct english grammar when speaking English. This video shows when to use relative clauses and which relative pronouns are the most important!
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Relative Pronouns \u0026 Clauses – English Grammar Lesson
In this lesson, we’re going to look at the use of words such as ‘who’, ‘whom’, ‘whose’, ‘which’, ‘that’ etc. when they are used as relative pronouns to connect two clauses. We will also look at when you can drop these words in a complex sentence.
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