Home » [Update] 10 Questions You Might Have About Black Holes – NASA Solar System Exploration | might have – NATAVIGUIDES

[Update] 10 Questions You Might Have About Black Holes – NASA Solar System Exploration | might have – NATAVIGUIDES

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A black hole is an extremely dense object in space from which no light can escape. While black holes are mysterious and exotic, they are also a key consequence of how gravity works: When a lot of mass gets compressed into a small enough space, the resulting object rips the very fabric of space and time, becoming what is called a singularity. A black hole’s gravity is so powerful that it will be able to pull in nearby material and “eat” it.

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Here are 10 things you might want to know about black holes:

Galaxy NGC 1068 is shown in visible light and X-rays in this composite image. High-energy X-rays (magenta) captured by NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, are overlaid on visible-light images from both NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The X-ray light is coming from an active supermassive black hole, also known as a quasar, in the center of the galaxy. This supermassive black hole has been extensively studied due to its relatively close proximity to our galaxy. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Roma Tre Univ.

1. How can we learn about black holes if they trap light, and can’t actually be seen?

No light of any kind, including X-rays, can escape from inside the event horizon of a black hole, the region beyond which there is no return. NASA’s telescopes that study black holes are looking at the surrounding environments of the black holes, where there is material very close to the event horizon. Matter is heated to millions of degrees as it is pulled toward the black hole, so it glows in X-rays. The immense gravity of black holes also distorts space itself, so it is possible to see the influence of an invisible gravitational pull on stars and other objects.


In 2015, researchers discovered a black hole named CID-947 that grew much more quickly than its host galaxy. The black hole at the galaxy’s center is nearly 7 billion times the mass of our Sun, placing it among the most massive black holes discovered. The galaxy’s mass, however, is considered normal. Because its light had to travel a very long distance, scientists were observing it at a period when the universe was less than 2 billion years old, just 14% of its current age (almost 14 billion years have passed since the Big Bang). Image credit: M. Helfenbein, Yale University / OPAC

2. How long does it take to make a black hole?

A stellar-mass black hole, with a mass of tens of times the mass of the Sun, can likely form in seconds, after the collapse of a massive star. These relatively small black holes can also be made through the merger of two dense stellar remnants called neutron stars. A neutron star can also merge with a black hole to make a bigger black hole, or two black holes can collide. Mergers like these also make black holes quickly, and produce ripples in space-time called gravitational waves.

More mysterious are the giant black holes found at the centers of galaxies — the “supermassive” black holes, which can weigh millions or billions of times the mass of the Sun. It can take less than a billion years for one to reach a very large size, but it is unknown how long it takes them to form, generally.

Scientists obtained the first image of a black hole, seen here, using Event Horizon Telescope observations of the center of the galaxy M87. The image shows a bright ring formed as light bends due to the intense gravity around a black hole that is 6.5 billion times more massive than our Sun. Image credit: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

3. How do scientists calculate the mass of a supermassive black hole?

The research involves looking at the motions of stars in the centers of galaxies. These motions imply a dark, massive body whose mass can be computed from the speeds of the stars. The matter that falls into a black hole adds to the mass of the black hole. Its gravity doesn’t disappear from the universe.

This animation illustrates the activity surrounding a black hole. While the matter that has passed the black hole’s event horizon can’t be seen, material swirling outside this threshold is accelerated to millions of degrees and radiates in X-rays. Image credit: CXC/A.Hobart

4. Is it possible for a black hole to “eat” an entire galaxy?

No. There is no way a black hole would eat an entire galaxy. The gravitational reach of supermassive black holes contained in the middle of galaxies is large, but not nearly large enough for eating the whole galaxy.


This illustration shows a glowing stream of material from a star disrupted as it was being devoured by a supermassive black hole. The black hole is surrounded by a ring of dust. When a star passes close enough to be swallowed by a black hole, the stellar material is stretched and compressed as it is pulled in, releasing an enormous amount of energy. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

5. What would happen if you fell into a black hole?

It certainly wouldn’t be good! But what we know about the interior of black holes comes from Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.

For black holes, distant observers will only see regions outside the event horizon, but individual observers falling into the black hole would experience quite another “reality.” If you got into the event horizon, your perception of space and time would entirely change. At the same time, the immense gravity of the black hole would compress you horizontally and stretch you vertically like a noodle, which is why scientists call this phenomenon (no joke) “spaghettification.”

Fortunately, this has never happened to anyone — black holes are too far away to pull in any matter from our solar system. But scientists have observed black holes ripping stars apart, a process that releases a tremendous amount of energy.

NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory detected record-breaking wind speeds coming from a disk around a black hole. This artist’s impression shows how the strong gravity of the black hole, on the left, is pulling gas away from a companion star on the right. This gas forms a disk of hot gas around the black hole, and the wind is driven off this disk at 20 million mph, or about 3% the speed of light. Image credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss | More info

6. What if the Sun turned into a black hole?

The Sun will never turn into a black hole because it is not massive enough to explode. Instead, the Sun will become a dense stellar remnant called a white dwarf.

But if, hypothetically, the Sun suddenly became a black hole with the same mass as it has today, this would not affect the orbits of the planets, because its gravitational influence on the solar system would be the same. So, Earth would continue to revolve around the Sun without getting pulled in — although the lack of sunlight would be disastrous for life on Earth.

The central region of our galaxy, the Milky Way, contains an exotic collection of objects, including a supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A*, weighing about 4 million times the mass of the Sun, clouds of gas at temperatures of millions of degrees, neutron stars and white dwarf stars tearing material from companion stars and beautiful tendrils of radio emission. The region around Sagittarius A* is shown in this composite image with Chandra data (green and blue) combined with radio data (red) from the MeerKAT telescope in South Africa, which will eventually become part of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). Image credit: X-Ray: NASA/CXC/UMass/D. Wang et al.; Radio: SARAO/MeerKAT

7. Have black holes had any influence on our planet?

Stellar-mass black holes are left behind when a massive star explodes. These explosions distribute elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen that are necessary for life into space. Mergers between two neutron stars, two black holes, or a neutron star and black hole, similarly spread heavy elements around that may someday become part of new planets. The shock waves from stellar explosions may also trigger the formation of new stars and new solar systems. So, in some sense, we owe our existence on Earth to long-ago explosions and collision events that formed black holes.

On a larger scale, most galaxies seem to have supermassive black holes at their centers. The connection between the formation of these supermassive black holes and the formation of galaxies is still not understood. It is possible that a black hole could have played a role in the formation of our Milky Way galaxy. But this chicken-and-egg problem — that is, which came first, the galaxy or the black hole? — is one of the great puzzles of our universe.

This artist’s concept shows the most distant supermassive black hole ever discovered. It is part of a quasar from just 690 million years after the Big Bang. Image credit: Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science

8. What is the most distant black hole ever seen?

The most distant black hole ever detected is located in a galaxy about 13.1 billion light-years from Earth. (The age of the universe is currently estimated to be about 13.8 billion years, so this means this black hole existed about 690 million years after the Big Bang.)

This supermassive black hole is what astronomers call a “quasar,” where large quantities of gas are pouring into the black hole so rapidly that the energy output is a thousand times greater than that of the galaxy itself. Its extreme brightness is how astronomers can detect it at such great distances.

The central region of this image contains the highest concentration of supermassive black holes ever seen and about a billion over the entire sky. Made with over 7 million seconds of Chandra observing time, this 2017 image is part of the Chandra Deep Field-South. With its unprecedented look at the early universe in X-rays, it offers astronomers a look at the growth of black holes over billions of years starting soon after the Big Bang. In this image, low, medium and high-energy X-rays that Chandra detects are shown as red, green, and blue respectively. Image credit: NASA/CXC/Penn State/B.Luo et al. | More info

9. If nothing can escape from a black hole, then won’t the whole universe eventually be swallowed up?

The universe is a big place. In particular, the size of a region where a particular black hole has significant gravitational influence is quite limited compared to the size of a galaxy. This applies even to supermassive black holes like the one found in the middle of the Milky Way. This black hole has probably already “eaten” most or all of the stars that formed nearby, and stars further out are mostly safe from being pulled in. Since this black hole already weighs a few million times the mass of the Sun, there will only be small increases in its mass if it swallows a few more Sun-like stars. There is no danger of the Earth (located 26,000 light years away from the Milky Way’s black hole) being pulled in.

Future galaxy collisions will cause black holes to grow in size, for example by merging of two black holes. But collisions won’t happen indefinitely because the universe is big and because it’s expanding, and so it’s very unlikely that any sort of black hole runaway effect will occur.

In this illustration of a black hole and its surrounding disk, gas spiraling toward the black hole piles up just outside it, creating a traffic jam. The traffic jam is closer in for smaller black holes, so X-rays are emitted on a shorter timescale. Image credit: NASA

10. Can black holes get smaller?

Yes. The late physicist Stephen Hawking proposed that while black holes get bigger by eating material, they also slowly shrink because they are losing tiny amounts of energy called “Hawking radiation.”

Hawking radiation occurs because empty space, or the vacuum, is not really empty. It is actually a sea of particles continually popping into and out of existence. Hawking showed that if a pair of such particles is created near a black hole, there is a chance that one of them will be pulled into the black hole before it is destroyed. In this event, its partner will escape into space. The energy for this comes from the black hole, so the black hole slowly loses energy, and mass, by this process.

Eventually, in theory, black holes will evaporate through Hawking radiation. But it would take much longer than the entire age of the universe for most black holes we know about to significantly evaporate. Black holes, even the ones around a few times the mass of the Sun, will be around for a really, really long time!

[Update] 9 Reasons You Might Have Been Suspected of Witchcraft in 1692 | might have – NATAVIGUIDES

The Salem witch trials of 1692 may be the best known outbreak of such a panic but they were not typical of the usual neighborhood suspicions.

In “Six Women of Salem: the Untold Story of the Accused and Their Accusers in the Salem Witch Trials” (DaCapo Press) I focus on the tragedy through the eyes and minds of six specific individuals, real women with lives before and (for the survivors) after 1692.

The six are: Rebecca Nurse, Bridget Bishop, Mary English, Ann Putnam Sr., Tituba, and Mary Warren. Of these six, five were accused, three were accusers, two were hanged, one escaped. One was Salem’s wealthiest woman and one owned nothing — not even herself.

Witchcraft, according to the laws and common assumptions of the era, was the cooperation of mortal humans with devils in order to harm others, a spiteful alliance with the forces of Evil rather than an allegiance to God. Neighborhood discord could lead to suspicions about this possibility (which might fester for years), and such suspicions could lead to accusations — but not necessarily to a conviction.

What did it take to be accused of witchcraft in colonial America? What would your odds have been if you had been there?

Granted, the Salem panic was unusual in the number and diversity of suspects as well as in the duration of the crises. In general, however, an assortment of characteristics could get a person accused of witchcraft, according to the 17th century British sources used by Massachusetts courts in 1692 — Richard Bernard’s “Guide to Grand Jury Men…in Cases of Witchcraft,” William Perkins’s “Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchcraft,” and John Gaule’s “Select Cases of Conscience Touching Witches and Witchcrafts” — and more recent studies such as John Demos’s 20th century work “Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England” (Oxford).

Here are nine of them.

1. You are female.
All through western history more women than men have been accused of witchcraft. It took less for a woman to be considered out of line.

2. You are middle aged.
Although suspects in 1692 ranged from Mary Bradbury in her 80s to the approximately five-year old Dorothy Good, most supposed “witches” were in their late 40s and 50s. Maybe other adults were resentful of a bossy mother-figure, or maybe not.

3. You are related to or otherwise associated with a known suspect.
As William Perkins pointed out “witchcraft is an art that may be learned,” so even if you weren’t a middle-aged woman you might be accused if you were friends with a suspected “witch” or if the neighbors had had their doubts about your mother, especially in 1692.

4. You are of an English Puritan background.
For the most part, the accused came from the same majority ethnic group as the accusers.

5. You are married but have few or no children.
Neighbors suffering misfortune might think you were attacking their larger families from jealousy especially if you lacked kin to speak up for you. Unprotected widows were at even more of a risk.

6. You are contentious and stubborn with a turbulent reputation.
Where a man might be considered forceful, a women might have been labeled as contentious. The situation would be worse if you were also at odds with your own family. After all, the Devil encourages discord.

7. You have been accused of other crimes before such as theft or slander.
As John Gaule put it a “lewd and naughty kind of life” was just the sort of thing that attracted devils.

8. You are of a relatively low social position.
Status and rank was stronger in the 17th century. Being too often dependent on the neighbors’ help could cause them to resent you.

9. A confessed “witch” accuses you of being a fellow witch.
This was a big problem in 1692 when so many suspects “confessed” from fear, confusion, or an attempt to curry the court’s favor. These confessing accusers generally named people already under suspicion.

The lesson from all this?

In 1692 anyone might have been accused of witchcraft. But if you were a widowed middle-aged English Puritan woman with few if any living children and slim financial resources, were known for having a temper and suspected of petty crimes (whether justified or not), and were related to or friends with someone else who was suspected of witchcraft — watch out for the neighbors.

Top 10 People Who Might Have Opened The Gates To Hell

Top 10 People Who Might Have Opened The Gates To Hell
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If you want to take a trip down to hell and visit satan then now is the time to do so why? Because there are a number of portals that have opened around the world that apparently lead to hell. From a portal that opened by satanists, to another opened by a family by accident. Lets talk about this and more only in todays video. Top 10 People Who Might Have Opened The Gates To Hell.
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Top 10 People Who Might Have Opened The Gates To Hell

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Fast \u0026 Furious Guests You Might Have Missed | Screen Bites

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Fast \u0026 Furious Guests You Might Have Missed | Screen Bites


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The Most Mysterious Structure EVER Built…Ancient Texts Might Have Revealed It’s Hidden Purpose

Did they find the blueprints to an incredibly advanced preflood technology? According to some Rabbinic texts, the tower its self may have actually been a spaceship or been used as a launching pad. This might explain why their god became angry when he saw what the people had constructed.

The Most Mysterious Structure EVER Built...Ancient Texts Might Have Revealed It's Hidden Purpose

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