Home » [NEW] Past Participles: When and How to Use Them | has had – NATAVIGUIDES

[NEW] Past Participles: When and How to Use Them | has had – NATAVIGUIDES

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Past ParticiplesTo say the English language is complicated would be a gross understatement. If you grew up speaking English, the use of certain verbiage and tenses come naturally. For the most part, you can probably speak correctly without having to think about why you are choosing your words.

However, when you study grammar, it is often  confusing to identify the various elements of a sentence– especially with inconsistencies in patterns and structure. Taking some time to become better acquainted with grammar will make you a better speaker, writer, and overall communicator. In addition, familiarizing yourself with the various parts of speech and their functions will also help you tremendously if you are trying to learn a foreign language.

For an introductory overview on all tenses of English grammar, explore this course.

What is a Past Participle?

A past participle is the form of a verb that represents (you guessed it) the past.

Past participles have three uses in the English language.

  1. Perfect Tenses
  2. The Passive Voice
  3. As Adjectives/Descriptors

Since participles are forms of verbs, in order to use them correctly, you need to recognize that there are two types of verbs – regular and irregular.

For regular verbs, the past forms (both simple and perfect) are simply the verb with ed added to the end.

Present Verb       Simple Past         Past Participle

help                            helped                       (have) helped

stop                           stopped                     (have) stopped

play                            played                       (have) played

Irregular verbs do not follow a rule or pattern. They simply need to be learned and memorized. Below are some examples:

Present Verb       Simple Past          Past Participle

run                             ran                              (have) run

go                                went                          (have) gone

am                              was                            (have) been

give                            gave                           (have) given

Irregular verb usage is something that many struggle with when learning English. Udemy offers the course: Focus on ESL Skills: Phrasal Verbs to help English language learners with phrasal verbs — another  common obstacle when learning English.

Past Participles in the Perfect Tense

The perfect aspect is when you are describing something that occurred in the past, but it is linked to another time. In the perfect tenses, a past participle is used with the helping verbs has, have or had.

The following are some examples that show the use of past participles with the different perfect tenses. The past participles are italicized.

Present Perfect [has/have + past participle]

  • The contractors still haven’t finished the renovation.
  • The detective has not found the jewelry thief.

Past Perfect [had + past participle]

  • Jessica aced her test because she had studied all night.
  • They took the dog to the vet because he hadn’t eaten for days.

Future Perfect [will have + past participle]

  • You will have mastered the basics of algebra after completing this course.
  • Will you have completed your homework by the time I get home?

Conditional Perfect [would have + past participle]

  • If it wasn’t for the bad call, he would have won the basketball game.
  • I would not have succeeded if it wasn’t for your help.

Past Participles in the Passive Voice

There are two types of forms you can use when writing or speaking: active and passive. When using the active form, the thing doing the action is the subject and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most of the time, people speak and write this way. It is more direct and usually is more action oriented. Check out this course to improve  your writing skills through the study of grammar essentials.

When using the passive form, the thing receiving is the subject of the sentence. The thing doing the action is included near the end of the sentence. Passive form is sometimes used if you want to emphasize the thing receiving the action. In all passive forms, past participles are used with helping or auxiliary verbs. These helping verbs are the forms of would, like, have, do, or will.

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Below are examples of the passive form. These sentences are passive because subject is not doing the action.

  • The little girl was bitten by the dog. (girl is the subject)
  • The bill was paid by the generous stranger. (bill is the subject)

In the active voice, the sentences would read:

  • The dog bit the little girl. (dog is the subject)
  • The generous stranger paid the bill. (stranger is the subject)

In the active voice, the subject is performing the action.

Past Participles as Adjectives

Past participles can also be used as an adjective to describe a noun. Below are some examples:

  • You should walk cautiously on the frozen pond.

The past participle form of “freeze” describes the pond.

  • The exhausted athlete needed take a break and recharge.

The past participle of “exhaust” describes the athlete.

 Commonly Misused Past Participles

There are many irregular verbs with past participles that are often used incorrectly. Below is a list of commonly misused past forms so you do not make the same mistakes and feel confident about your word choice.

Verb       Past Tense    Past Participle     Example Using Past Participle

swim         swam               swum                       She had swum the entire length of the pool.

dive          dived/dove      dived                        He had dived perfectly and scored a ten.

ring           rang                  rung                         You are late if the bell has already rung.

spit           spit/spat          spat                          The crying baby had spat out his milk.  

lie              lay                    lain                           She had lain outside to try to get a tan.

lay             laid                   laid                          The librarian laid the book on the table.

hang         hung                hung                        She had hung her photos on the wall.

hang        hanged             hanged                    The sheriff had hanged the criminal.

Whether you are studying grammar, or learning to speak English, it is important to be able to recognize how words function within a sentence. If you will be taking the SAT’s, check out this course to improve your scores on the grammar and essay sections. Continuing to study grammar and explore how thoughts and sentences are pieced together, will help to improve your writing and speaking skills. You will become a better communicator whether you are engaging in a simple conversation or showcasing and executing your ideas in the professional world.

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[Update] have to, must | has had – NATAVIGUIDES

have to, must

Have to is NOT an auxiliary verb (it uses the verb as a main verb). We include have to here for convenience.

Must is a modal auxiliary verb.

In this lesson we look at have to, must and must not, followed by a quiz to check your understanding.

have to for objective obligation

We often use have to to say that something is obligatory, for example:

  • Children have to go to school.

Note that we can use the have to expression in all tenses, for example: he has to, he had to, he has had to, he will have to

Structure of have to

Have to is often grouped with modal auxiliary verbs for convenience, but in fact it is not a modal verb. It is not even an auxiliary verb. In the have to structure, “have” is a main verb.

The basic structure for have to is:

subject
+
auxiliary verb
+
have
+
to-infinitive

Look at these examples in the Present Simple tense:

subject
auxiliary verb
main verb

to-infinitive

+
She

has
to work.
 


I
do not
have
to see
the doctor.

?
Do
you
have
to go
to school?

Use of have to

In general, have to expresses impersonal obligation. The subject of have to is obliged or forced to act by a separate, external power (for example, the Law or school rules). Have to is objective. Look at these examples:

  • In France, you have to drive on the right.
  • In England, most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform.
  • John has to wear a tie at work.

In each of the above cases, the obligation is not the subject’s opinion or idea. The obligation comes from outside.

We can use have to in all tenses, and also with modal auxiliaries. We conjugate it just like any other main verb. Here are some examples:

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subject
auxiliary verb
main verb

to-infinitive
 

Past Simple
I
 
had
to work
yesterday.

Present Simple
I
 
have
to work
today.

Future Simple
I
will
have
to work
tomorrow.

Present Continuous
She
is
having
to wait.
 

Present Perfect
We
have
had
to change
the time.

modal may
They
may
have
to do
it again.

must for subjective obligation

We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary, for example:

  • I must go.

Structure of must

Must is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb.

The basic structure for must is:

subject
+
auxiliary verb
must
+
main verb
base

The main verb is always the same form: base

Look at these examples:

subject
auxiliary verb

main verb
base

I
must
go
home.

You
must
visit
us.

We
must
stop
now.

must cannot be followed by to. So, we say:

  • I must go now.
    I must to go now.

Like all auxiliary verbs,cannot be followed by. So, we say:

Use of must

In general, must expresses personal obligation. Must expresses what the speaker thinks is necessary. Must is subjective. Look at these examples:

  • I must stop smoking.
  • You must visit us soon.
  • He must work harder.

In each of the above cases, the “obligation” is the opinion or idea of the person speaking. In fact, it is not a real obligation. It is not imposed from outside.

It is sometimes possible to use must for real obligation, for example a rule or a law. But generally we use have to for this.

We can use must to talk about the present or the future. Look at these examples:

  • I must go now. (present)
  • I must call my mother tomorrow. (future)

We cannot use must to talk about the past. We use have to to talk about the past.

must not for prohibition

We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed, for example:

  • Passengers must not talk to the driver.

Structure of must not

Must is an auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb.

The basic structure for must not is:

subject
+
must not
+
main verb

The main verb is the base verb.

We often contract must not to mustn’t.

Look at these examples:

subject
auxiliary
must + not
main verb

I
mustn’t
forget
my keys.

You
mustn’t
disturb
him.

Students
must not
be
late.

NB: like all auxiliary verbs, must CANNOT be followed by to. So, we say:

  • You mustn’t arrive late.
    You mustn’t to arrive late.

Use of must not

Must not expresses prohibition – something that is not permitted, not allowed. The prohibition can be subjective (the speaker’s opinion) or objective (a real law or rule). Look at these examples:

  • I mustn’t eat so much sugar. (subjective)
  • You mustn’t watch so much television. (subjective)
  • Students must not leave bicycles here. (objective)
  • Policemen must not drink on duty. (objective)

We can use must not to talk about the present or the future:

  • Visitors must not smoke. (present)
  • I mustn’t forget Tara’s birthday. (future)

We cannot use must not to talk about the past. We use other structures to talk about the past, for example:

  • We were not allowed to enter.
  • I couldn’t park outside the shop.


Have / Has Basics – ESL Present Tense Level 1 – Adult Education


Let’s learn English! Have / Has Basics. Level 1

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Have / Has Basics - ESL Present Tense Level 1 - Adult Education

Has to, Have to, Had to, Will Have to का सही Use | Learn English Grammar in Hindi | Awal


हिन्दी द्वारा सीखो Have to, Has to, Had to का सही इस्तेमाल. Learn Use of Have to, Has to, Had to, in English through Hindi lesson by Awal. English grammar concepts explained by Awal in simple language with easy examples.
This video is helpful to all people who want to learn English grammar in Hindi. This video provides step by step explanation of English modal verbs with examples in Hindi. These modals are used to express certainty, compulsion, necessity, and obligation. In this video, Awal has also described the sentence structure and the correct form of verb to be used in such sentences.
If you are looking for low level details on how to use Have to, Has to, Had to, this video is for you as a beginner. This video also tells the use of Will Have to, Might Have to, May Have to, Having to, along with affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences using does not, did not, will have not, etc.. If you want to understand the basics of English grammar to speak English fluently and confidently, this video with help you to remember these grammar rules during English conversation. This English tutorial is helpful for Indians, Pakistanis, and others who can understand Hindi or Urdu.
Watch other videos of Awal through this link:
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Has to, Have to, Had to, Will Have to का सही Use | Learn English Grammar in Hindi | Awal

have, has, had의 차이점 [고딸영어][영문법][기초영어]


have, has, had의 차이점을 함께 살펴봅시다!
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have, has, had의 차이점 [고딸영어][영문법][기초영어]

Tap 6: Phat Am Tieng Anh/ Have, has, had/ back/ word, work, world


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Words that ESL students have trouble on. Thank you for watching. Please don’t forget to subscribe.

Tap 6: Phat Am Tieng Anh/ Have, has, had/ back/ word, work, world

Usage Of Has, Have And Had | English | Grade-2,3 | Tutway |


UsageOfHasHaveHad
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Usage of ‘has’, ‘have’, and ‘had’
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Usage Of Has, Have And Had | English | Grade-2,3 | Tutway |

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