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[NEW] Mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh | defining relative clauses – NATAVIGUIDES

defining relative clauses: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้

Mệnh đề quan hệ là một chủ điểm quan trọng, cần nắm vững trong học tiếng anh. Bài hôm nay Langmaster Review sẽ chia sẻ tới các bạn chủ đề này.

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1. Định nghĩa mệnh đề quan hệ

Mệnh đề (Clause) là một phần của câu, nó có thể bao gồm nhiều từ hay có cấu trúc của cả một câu. Mệnh đề quan hệ dùng để giải thích rõ hơn về danh từ đứng trước nó.

Xét ví dụ sau:

  • The woman who is wearing the T-shirt is my girlfriend.

Trong câu này phần được viết chữ nghiêng được gọi là một relative clause, nó đứng sau “the woman” và dùng để xác định danh từ đó. Nếu bỏ mệnh đề này ra chúng ta vẫn có một câu hoàn chỉnh: 

  • The woman is my girlfriend.

2. Các dạng mệnh đề Quan hệ

A. Relative Pronouns – Đại từ quan hệ

 

Đại từ quan hệ

Cách sử dụng

Ví dụ

Who

Làm chủ ngữ, đại diện ngôi người

I told you about the woman who lives next door.

which

Làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ, đại diện ngôi đồ vật, động vật

Bổ sung cho cả câu đứng trước nó

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?

He couldn’t read which surprised me.

whose

Chỉ sở hữu cho người và vật

Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?

whom

Đại diện cho tân ngữ chỉ người

I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.

That

Đại diện cho chủ ngữ chỉ người, vật, đặc biệt trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (who, which vẫn có thê sử dụng được)

I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

B. Relative Clauses – Mệnh đề quan hệ  

Mệnh đề quan hệ (mệnh đề tính từ) bắt đầu bằng các đại từ quan hệ: who, whom, which, that, whose hay những trạng từ quan hệ: why, where, when. Mệnh đề quan hệ dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước nó.

I. Các đại từ quan hệ

1. WHO

– làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

– thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

  • ….. N (person) + WHO + V + O

2. WHOM

– làm túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

– thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

  • …..N (person) + WHOM + S + V

3. WHICH

– làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

– thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật

  • ….N (thing) + WHICH + V + O

  • ….N (thing) + WHICH + S + V

4. THAT

– có thể thay thế cho vị trí của who, whom, which trong mệnh đề quan hệ quan hệ xác định

* Các trường hợp thường dùng “that”:

– khi đi sau các hình thức so sánh nhất

– khi đi sau các từ: only, the first, the last

– khi danh từ đi trước bao gôm cả người và vật

– khi đi sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none.

Ex: He was the most interesting person that I have ever met.

It was the first time that I heard of it.

These books are all that my sister left me.

She talked about the people and places that she had visited.

* Các trường hợp không dùng that:

– trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định

– sau giới từ

5. WHOSE

Dùng để chỉ sở hữu cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc vật, thường thay cho các từ: her, his, their, hoặc hình thức ‘s

…..N (person, thing) + WHOSE + N + V ….

II. Các trạng từ quan hệ

1. WHY: mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh chỉ lý do, thường thay cho cụm for the reason, for that reason.

…..N (reason) + WHY + S + V …

Ex: I don’t know the reason. You didn’t go to school for that reason.

  • → I don’t know the reason why you didn’t go to school.

 

2. WHERE: thay thế từ chỉ nơi chốn, thường thay cho there

….N (place) + WHERE + S + V ….

(WHERE = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: a/ The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed t that hotel.

  • → The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.

  • → The hotel at which we stayed wasn’t very clean.

 

3. WHEN: thay thế từ chỉ thời gian, thường thay cho từ then

….N (time) + WHEN + S + V …

(WHEN = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day.

  • → Do you still remember the day when we first met?

  • → Do you still remember the day on which we first met?

I don’t know the time. She will come back then. → I don’t know the time when she will come back.

III. Các loại Mệnh đề quan hệ

Có hai loại mệnh đề quan hệ: mệnh đề quan hệ xác định và mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.

  1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (Defining relative clauses): là mệnh đề được dùng để xác định danh từ đứng trước nó. Mệnh đề xác định là mệnh đề cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, không có nó câu sẽ không đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ không xác định và không dùng dấu phẩy ngăn cách nó với mệnh đề chính.

  2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không hạn định (Non-defining relative clauses): là mệnh đề cung cấp thêm thông tin về một người, một vật hoặc một sự việc đã được xác định. Mệnh đề không xác định là mệnh đề không nhất thiết phải có trong câu, không có nó câu vẫn đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ xác định và được ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng một hoặc hai dấu phẩy (,) hay dấu gạch ngang (-)

Ex: Dalat, which I visited last summer, is very beautiful. (Non-defining relative clause)

Note: để biết khi nào dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, ta lưu ý các điểm sau:

– Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một danh từ riêng

– Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một tính từ sở hữu (my, his, her, their)

– Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa la một danh từ đi với this , that, these, those

 

IV. Một số lưu ý trong mệnh đề quan hệ

1. Nếu trong mệnh đề quan hệ có giới từ thì giới từ có thể đặt trước hoặc sau mệnh đề quan hệ (chỉ áp dụng với whom và which.)

  • Ex: Mr. Brown is a nice teacher. We studied with him last year.

    • → Mr. Brown, with whom we studied last year, is a nice teacher.

    • → Mr. Brown, whom we studied with last year, is a nice teacher.

2. Có thể dùng which thay cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước.

  • Ex: She can’t come to my birthday party. That makes me sad. → She can’t come to my birthday party, which makes me sad.

3. Ở vị trí túc từ, whom có thể được thay bằng who.

  • Ex: I’d like to talk to the man whom / who I met at your birthday party.

4. Trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định , chúng ta có thể bỏ các đại từ quan hệ làm túc từ:whom, which.

  • Ex: The girl you met yesterday is my close friend. The book you lent me was very interesting.

5. Các cụm từ chỉ số lượng some of, both of, all of, neither of, many of, none of … có thể được dùng trước whom, which và whose.

  • Ex: I have two sisters, both of whom are students. She tried on three dresses, none of which fitted her.

 

V. Cách rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

1. Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm phân từ

Mệnh đề quan hệ chứa các đại từ quan hệ làm chủ từ who, which, that có thể được rút gọn thành cụm hiện tại phân từ (V-ing) hoặc quá khứ phân từ (V3/ed).

* Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề chủ động thì rút thành cụm hiện tại phân từ (V-ing).

  • a/ The man who is standing over there is my father. → The man standing over there is my father.

  • b/ The couple who live next door to me are professors. → The couple living next door to me are professors.

 

* Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề bị động thì rút thành cụm quá khứ phân từ (V3/ed). Ví dụ:

  • a/ The instructions that are given on the front page are very important. → The instructions given on the front page are very important.

  • b/ The book which was bought by my mother is interesting. → The book bought by my mother is interesting.

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm động từ nguyên mẫu

Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm động từ nguyên mẫu (To-infinitive) khi trước đại từ quan hệ có các cụm từ: the first, the second, the last, the only hoặchình thức so sánh bậc nhất. Ví dụ

a/ John was the last person that got the news. → John was the last person to get the news.

b/ He was the best player that we admire. →   He was the best player to be admired.

c/ He was the second man who was killed in this way. →   He was the second man to be killed in this way.

3. Mệnh đề quan hệ chứa “tobe” và tính từ:

Ta có thể bỏ đi đại từ quan hệ và ”to be”

+ The woman, who is very clever and beautiful is my aunt

Được giản lược thành: The woman, clever and beautiful is my aunt.

4. L

oại bỏ đại từ quan hệ và to be trước một ngữ giới từ (một giới từ mở đầu kết hợp với các danh từ theo sau)

Ví dụ:

+ The beaker that is on the counter contains a solution.

Được giản lược thành: The beaker on the counter contains a solution.

[NEW] Relative Clauses – The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | defining relative clauses – NATAVIGUIDES

Relative Clauses

This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when to use “that” or “which.”

What is a relative clause?

A relative clause is one kind of dependent clause. It has a subject and verb, but can’t stand alone as a sentence. It is sometimes called an “adjective clause” because it functions like an adjective—it gives more information about a noun. A relative clause always begins with a “relative pronoun,” which substitutes for a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun when sentences are combined.

The relative pronouns are:

Pronoun
Stands For
Uses

who
people
substitutes for subject nouns/pronouns (he, she, we, they)

whom
people
substitutes for object nouns/pronouns (him, her, us, them)

whose
people or things
substitutes for possessive nouns/pronouns (his, hers, ours, theirs)

that
people or things
can be used for either subject or object

can only be used in restrictive relative clauses (see below)

which
things
can be used for either subject or object

can be used in non-restrictive relative clauses

can also be used in restrictive relative clauses, though some people don’t like this use

Relative pronoun as subject (in red):

I like the person. The person was nice to me.

I like the person who was nice to me.

I hate the dog. The dog bit me.

I hate the dog that bit me.

I am moving to Louisville, KY. It is home to the Muhammad Ali Museum.

I am moving to Louisville, KY, which is home to the Muhammad Ali Museum.

Relative pronoun as object (in red):

I like the bike. My father gave me the bike.

I like the bike that my father gave me.

Restrictive Relative Clauses

Restrictive relative clauses give information that defines the noun—information that’s necessary for complete identification of the noun. Use “that” or “which” for non-human nouns; use “that” or “who” for human nouns. Do not use commas.

I like the paintings. (Which paintings? We can’t clearly identify them without the relative clause.)

So we add the clause:

The paintings hang in the SASB North lobby.

I like the paintings that hang in the SASB North lobby.

OR

I like the paintings which hang in the SASB North lobby. (Again, this is acceptable, but some people object to using “which” in a restrictive relative clause. “That” is preferred.)

Students who study hard will do well in my class. (Only this group of students will do well.)

Students whose grades are low can drop one test score. (Only this group can drop a test score.)

When the noun is the object of the preposition, both the noun and the preposition move together to the front of the relative clause. In less formal English, it’s common to move only the pronoun to the front of the clause.

I spent hours talking with a person last night. I hope to hear from her.

I hope I hear from the person with whom I spent hours talking last night. (more formal)

OR

I hope to hear from the person whom I spent hours talking with last night. (less formal)

Non-restrictive relative clauses

This type of relative clause merely provides extra information. The information may be quite interesting and important to the larger conversation, but it is not essential for precise identification of the noun. “That” cannot be used as a relative pronoun in a non-restrictive relative clause. Commas are always used at the beginning and end of this type of relative clause.

A non-restrictive relative clause can modify a single noun, a noun phrase, or an entire proposition.

My mother is thinking of opening a restaurant. My mother is an excellent cook.

“My mother” is already a clearly defined noun, so the second sentence becomes a non-restrictive relative clause set off by commas on both sides.

My mother, who is an excellent cook, is thinking of opening a restaurant.

I’m planning to grow roses. I find roses quite beautiful.

I’m planning to grow roses, which I find quite beautiful.

(not okay) I’m planning to grow roses, that I find quite beautiful.

I’m driving across the country with three small children.

Driving across the country with three small children is going to be stressful.

I’m driving across the country with three small children, which is going to be stressful.

Reducing relative clauses

Some types of relative clauses can be “reduced”— the relative pronoun and maybe other words can be removed. You might reduce the clause to make your writing more concise or to add sentence variety. We’ll use the examples above to demonstrate how to reduce both restrictive and non-restrictive clauses.

Restrictive relative clauses can be reduced in two ways.

Subject pronouns can be deleted if –ing is added to the verb.

I like the paintings that hang in the SASB North lobby.

I like the paintings hanging in the SASB North lobby.

Object pronouns can be deleted.

I like the bike that my father gave me.

I like the bike my father gave me.

Non-restrictive relative clauses can be reduced in one way.

Subject pronouns with “be” verbs can be deleted in non-restrictive clauses.

>I am moving to Louisville, KY, which is home to the Muhammad Ali Museum.

I am moving to Louisville, KY, home to the Muhammad Ali Museum.

My mother, who is an excellent cook, is thinking of opening a restaurant.

My mother, an excellent cook, is thinking of opening a restaurant.

Subject-verb agreement in relative clauses

Remember that the relative pronoun is substituting for a noun, which could be singular or plural before the substitution. The verb in the relative clause must agree with the original noun.

People are lucky. People win the lottery.

People who win the lottery are lucky. (plural verb)

A person is lucky. She wins the lottery every year.

A person who wins the lottery every year is lucky. (singular verb)

Agreement can be tricky in “one of the…” constructions. The key is to find which noun the relative pronoun is referring to.

Homelessness is a problem. The problem needs to be addressed.

Homelessness is a problem that needs to be addressed. (singular problem)

Many problems need to be addressed. Homelessness is one of the problems.

Homelessness is one of the problems that need to be addressed. (plural problems)

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License.
You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Relative Clauses: The Grammar Gameshow Episode 11


Welcome to the Grammar Gameshow! Test your knowledge in this crazy quiz! The presenter is a bit strange, the points don’t make sense and the prizes could use some improvement, but at least the grammar is correct!
Levington already has one win under his belt, but Kate is hard on his heels. In this episode, our contestants test themselves against defining relative clauses! Those useful, noun modifying phrases that make complex sentences! Will Levington win through, or can Kate take him down? And what’s this big surprise at the end? Find out in this episode of the Grammar Gameshow!
Watch and see! Learn more here: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/english/course/tgg/
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Relative Clauses: The Grammar Gameshow Episode 11

Relative Clauses with 50 examples


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A relative clause is a specific type of subordinate clause that adapts, describes or modifies a noun. Relative clauses add information to sentences by using a relative pronoun such as who, that or which. Relative pronoun. Noun that the pronoun refers to.
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Relative Clauses with 50 examples

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THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE | Relative Clauses


THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE | Relative Clauses
You’re probably already familiar with adjectives. They modify nouns and pronouns, providing a description or information. Adjective clauses, however, are groups of words that contain a subject and a verb, and provide further description.
Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns, including:
who
whom
whose
that
which
They may also begin with relative adverbs, such as:
when
where
why
Seems simple enough, right? In this video, we will be diving into some different examples of adjective clauses, essential and nonessential clauses, and much more. After watching this video, , you’ll be able to spot adjective clauses from a mile away. So, without further ado, let’s Get Grammarous!

THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE | Relative Clauses

RELATIVE CLAUSE (defining/non-defining) | ROCK YOUR ENGLISH #69


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RELATIVE CLAUSE (defining/non-defining) | ROCK YOUR ENGLISH #69

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่LEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGE

ขอบคุณมากสำหรับการดูหัวข้อโพสต์ defining relative clauses

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