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Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf!

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Sentences

Study these direct sentences

  1. The boy said to the girl, “I can hear you.”
  2. The little girl remarked, “I shall always remember this day
  3. The man said to the children, “I know you and your parents.”
  4. The man cried out “We are not foes, but friends.”
  5. He said to me, “Go away.”
  6. Leo said to his sister, “Why are you crying?
  7. He said, “Hurrah! We have won.”
  8. Gilbert said to me, “I am very busy and so cannot accompany you to the station now.”

Indirect Sentences

Study these indirect sentences of upper direct sentences.

  1. The boy told the girl that he could hear her.
  2. The little girl remarked that she would always remember that day.
  3. The man told the children that he knew them and their parents.
  4. The man cried out that they were not foes, but friends.
  5. He told me to go away.
  6. Leo asked his sister why she was crying.
  7. He cried out joyfully that they had won.
  8. Gilbert told me that he was very busy and so could not accompany me to the station just then.

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

Let us! Learn in Detail.

There are two ways in which the words of a speaker can be reported:

  1. Direct speech/Direct Narration

We may quote the actual words used by the speaker. This is called Direct Narration or Direct Speech.

  1. Indirect Narration

We may have the substance of the words used by the speaker and not his actual words. This is called Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech.

Examples:

Direct: Afzal said, “I am going home.”

Indirect: Afzal said that he was going home.

 

It will be seen that in Direct Speech, (I) the exact words of the speaker have been used, (II) the words quote have been put within Quotation Marks or Inverted Commas, (III) the first letter of the quotation begins with a capital letter, and (IV) there is always a comma, a colon after ‘said’ that introduces the spoken words.

 

In Indirect Speech, the speech that is reported is not put within inverted commas and does not begin with a capital letter. That has been placed before the Indirect Speech.

 

When the verb in one sentence reports, what is said by some speaker in another sentence, the verb in the sentence is called the reporting verb and what is said in the second sentence is called the Reported speech.

Reporting Verb

Reported Speech

My mother said,
“Here is the pen you were looking for yesterday.”

My father said,
“It is time to go away.”

 

While changing Direct into Indirect Speech the Personal Pronouns and the tense of the verbs in the reported speech undergo certain changes as explained below.

 

RULES FOR THE CHANGE OF PRONOUNS

First-person in the reported speech:-

Direct: He says to me”l am tired.”

Indirect: He tells me that he is tired.

 

Direct: He said to me,”l am faithful.”

Indirect: He told me that he was faithful.

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

From the study of the foregoing examples we learn:-

 

Rule 1. Pronouns of the First Person in the Reported Speech are changed in Indirect Speech to the same person as the subject of the Reporting Verb.

All nouns are considered to be in the Third Person e.g.,

 

Direct: The man said to the children, “I know you and your parents”

Indirect: The man told the children that he knew them and their parents.

 

Second Person in the Reported Speech:-

 

Direct: He says to me,” You are tired.”

Indirect: He tells to me that I am tired.

 

Direct: He said to lite,” You lack courage.”

Indirect: He told lite that I lacked courage.

 

From the study of the foregoing examples we learn:-

 

Rule 2. Pronouns of the Second Person in the reported speech are changed in Indirect to the same person as the noun or pronoun coming after the Reporting Verb. If the object of the reporting verb is not given, the sense of the Pronoun to be used should be carefully determined. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

 

Direct: Joe said to me,” You can go.”

Indirect: Joe told me that I could go.

 

Third Person in the Reported Speech.

 

Direct: He says to me, “He is tired.”

Indirect: He tells me that he is tired.

 

Direct: He said to me, “He is still absent.”

Indirect: He told me that he (another person) was still absent.

 

From the foregoing examples we conclude:-

 

Rule 3. Pronouns of the Third Person in the Reported Speech remain unchanged in the Indirect Speech.

 

Direct: Joe said to her mother, “She is to be blamed.”

Indirect: Joe said to her mother that she was to be blamed

 

In sentences like the above, the meaning is ambiguous as she in the Indirect Speech may apply to Joe, or her mother, or to a third person, spoken of. In such cases, it is better to name the person in brackets after the pronoun thus:-

 

Joe told her mother that she (Joe) was to be blamed.

OR

Joe told her mother that she (her mother) was to be blamed.

OR

Joe told her mother that she (another person) was to be blamed.

 

RULES FOR THE CHANGE OF TENSES

 

Study the following examples:-

 

Reporting Verb in the Present or Future Tense:-

 

Direct: Salim says, “The teacher is not at home.”

Indirect: Salim says that the teacher is not at home.

 

Direct: I say, “I am reading.”

Indirect: I say that I am reading.

 

Direct: He will say, “I did not know it.”

Indirect: He will say that he did not know it.

 

Direct: He will say, “l am not at home.”

Indirect: He will say that he is not at home.

 

From the study of the foregoing examples we learn:-

 

Rule 1. If the Reporting Verb is in the Present or Future tense, the tense of the verb in the Reported Speech is not changed. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

 

Reporting verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Present Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech. Study the following examples:-

 

Direct: Gilbert said, “I want peace.”

Indirect: Gilbert said that he wanted peace.

 

Direct: He said, “The doctor may come.”

Indirect: He said that the doctor might come.

 

The above examples show that:-

 

Rule 2. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Indefinite tense.

 

Reporting verb in the past tense followed by a verb in the Present Continuous tense in the Reported Speech.

Continuous tense in the Reported speech.

Study the following examples:-

 

Direct: He said, “The king is coming now.”

Indirect: He said that the king was coming then.

 

Direct: Leo said, “I am riding a horse.”

Indirect: Leo said that he was riding a horse.

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The foregoing examples show that:-

 

Rule 3. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Continuous tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Continuous tense.

 

Reporting verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Present Perfect tense in the Reported Speech.

 

 Study the following examples:–

 

Direct: Joe said, “I have ridden a horse.”

Indirect: Joe said that he had ridden a horse.

 

Direct:  He said, “My son has come.”

Indirect: He said that his son had come.

 

The following examples show that:

 

Rule 4. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Perfect tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Perfect tense.

 

Reporting verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Present Perfect Continuous tense in the Reported Speech. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

 

Study the following examples:-

 

Direct: Joe said, “I have ridden a horse.”

Indirect: Joe said that he had been riding a horse.

 

Direct: He said, “It has been snowing yesterday.”

Indirect: He said that it had been snowing the previous day.

 

These examples show that:–

 

Rule 5. After a verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Perfect Continuous tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Perfect Continuous tense.

 

Rules 2, 3, 4 and 5 may be briefly summed up as follows:-          

 

If the Reporting verb is in the past tense, the Present tense in the Reported Speech is changed into its corresponding past form.

 

Reporting Verb in the Past tense by a verb in the Past Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech.

 

Study the following examples:–

 

Direct: Joe said, “I spoke the truth.”

Indirect: Joe said that he had spoken the truth.

 

Direct: She said, “He came at dinner-time.”

Indirect: She said that he had come at dinner-time.

 

These examples show that:-

 

Rule 6. After a Reporting Verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Past Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Perfect tense.

 

Reporting Verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Past Continuous tense in the Reported Speech.

 

Study the following examples:–

 

Direct: He said, “It was snowing yesterday.”

Indirect: He said that it had been raining the previous day.

 

Rule 7. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Past Continuous tense in the Reported Speech is changed into Past Perfect Continuous.

 

Reporting in the verb in the Past Speech tense followed by a verb in the Past Perfect tense Reported speech.

 

Study the following examples:–

 

Direct: Joe said, “I had spoken the truth.”

Indirect: Joe said that he had spoken the truth.

 

Direct: He said, “I had written a letter.”

Indirect: He said that he had written a letter.

 

Rule 8. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Past Perfect tense in the Reported Speech remains unchanged.

 

Reporting Verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reported Speech.

 

Study the following examples:–

 

Direct: John said, “The man had been working.”

Indirect: John said that the man had been working.

 

Direct: He said, “The man had been coming.”

Indirect: He said that the man had been coming.

 

From the foregoing examples we learn:–

 

Rule 9. After a reporting verb in the Past tense a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reported Speech remains unchanged.

 

Reporting Verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Past Perfect tense in the Reported Speech.

 

Study the following examples:-

 

Direct.   Joe said, “He had spoken the truth.”

Indirect: Joe said that he had spoken the truth.

 

Direct: He said, “I had written a letter.

Indirect: He said that he had written a letter.

 

From the foregoing examples we learn:–            

 

Rule 10. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Past Perfect tense in the Reported Speech remains unchanged. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

 

Reporting Verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reported Speech.

 

Study the following examples:-

 

Direct: John said, “The man had been working.”

Indirect: John said that the man had been working.

 

Direct: He said, “The man had been coining.”

Indirect: He said that the man had been coming.

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

From the foregoing examples we learn:-

 

Rule 11. After a reporting verb in the Past tense a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reporting Speech remains unchanged.

 

Rule 12. After a reporting verb in the Past tense shall will, may, and can would in might the Reported Speech are changed the respective application into of the should, would might and could. This is practically the application of the rule according to which the Present Tense in the Reported Speech is changed Into its corresponding Past form.

 

Examples:-

 

Direct: He said, “The man shall come.”

Indirect: He said that the man should come.

 

Direct: He said, “The man will come.”

Indirect: He said that the man would come.

 

Direct: He said, “The man may come.”

Indirect: He said that the man ‘night come.

 

Direct: He said, “The man can come.”

Indirect: He said that the man could come.

 

According to one of the rules relating to the change of tense: If the reporting verb is a Past tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech must be changed to one or other of the four forms of the Past tense.

There is one exception to this rule similar to that described in connection with the Sequence of Tenses.

If the reported Speech relates to some universal or habitual fact, then the Present Indefinite in the reported speech is not changed into the corresponding Past but remains exactly as it was

 Past tense, “Present tense”

Direct
He said, “We cannot be quite happy in this life.”

Indirect
He said that we cannot be quite happy in this life

 
Direct
He said, “The earth moves around the sun.”

Indirect
He said that the earth moves around the sun.

 

Some more examples of the Reported Speech expressing a universal truth or a habitual fact in the Present tense in the indirect Speech:

 

  • The teacher taught us that water is a compound of Oxygen and Hydrogen.
  • He informed the stranger that the Hindus burn their dead.
  • The sage preached that flesh dies, but soul endures.
  • Tolstoy believed that God is where love is.
  • Joe said that his grandfather smokes occasionally.
  • He said that his neighbor drinks but only now and then.
  • The teacher told the boys that patience and preservance overcome mountains.

 

Words indicating the nearness of time or place in the Direct speech are changed into those indicating distance when converted into Indirect Speech. Thus:-

 

This
becomes
that

These
,,
Those

Thus
,,
So, in that way

Now
,,
Then

Here
,,
There

Hence
,,
Thence

Hither
,,
Thither

Today
,,
That day, the same day

Tomorrow
,,
The next day

Yesterday
,,
The day before, the previous day

Last night
,,
The previous night

Come
,,
Go

Ago
,,
before

 

Examples:

Direct
He Said, “I will leave you now.”

Indirect
He Said, that he would leave them then.

Direct
He Said, “I will come here.”

Indirect
He Said, that he would go there.

 

Infographics

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf

Download pdf of this lesson “Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf” below:

[Update] Exercise On Direct & Indirect Speech Questions & Answers For English Aptitude | direct and indirect speech – NATAVIGUIDES

Question & Answers – Direct & Indirect Speech Exercise

Practising questions and answers – Direct and Indirect Speech Exercise is important for candidates to ace the Verbal Ability section of any competitive exam.  

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The article aims to give Direct and Indirect questions and answers that are already asked in some or the other exams and have high chances to be asked again. 

Candidates preparing for various Government exams must be aware that English is an important part of the syllabus of most of the exams like RRB, SSC, Bank, LIC, etc. 

Hence, candidates are advised to practice Direct and Indirect Speech exercise given in the article to prepare well and fetch good marks in the English Language section of these exams. 

Direct & Indirect Speech Question And Answers For General English 

Candidates will find 20 Direct and Indirect Speech Questions and Answers on this page. Going through the given direct and indirect speech exercise, candidates will get familiarized with the variety and scope of direct and indirect speech questions asked in various government exams. 

Also, candidates will be able to download the Direct and Indirect Speech Questions and Answers in the PDF format for convenient preparation.

20 Direct And Indirect Speech Questions And Answers PDF:-Download PDF Here

Before heading towards the direct and indirect speech exercise candidates must do a quick revision of important rules for Direct and Indirect Speech in the given link. 
To ace the verbal ability section, it is important to have a clear conceptual knowledge of Direct and indirect Speech, their usage and application in the English language. Therefore, candidates can go through the video on Direct and Indirect Speech rules in the English Language given below for better understanding-

Direct And Indirect Speech Exercise

Directions For Question 1 to 20 – Given below are sentences in Direct/Indirect Speech along with four options. You are required to read the Direct and Indirect Speech questions carefully and select the option that expresses the same sentence in the reverse speech i.e. Indirect/Direct Speech:

Q.1. The designer said to her, ‘will you have the dress ready by tomorrow evening?’

  1. The designer asked her if she would have the dress ready by next evening.

  2. The designer asked her that she would have the dress ready by next evening.

  3. The designer asked her that if she will like to have the dress by next evening.

  4. The designer asked her that she will have the suit ready by next evening.

Q.2. They said, ‘Let us come in’.

  1. They told that let them be allowed to come in.

  2. They requested that they might be allowed to come in.

  3. They said that if they are allowed to come in.

  4. They requested me to let them come in.

Q.3. Reshma said to Priya, ‘Why are you sketching on the wall?’

  1. Reshma asked Priya why was she sketching on the wall.

  2. Reshma asked Priya why had she been sketching on the wall

  3. Reshma asked Priya that why is she sketching on the wall.

  4. Reshma asked Priya why she was sketching on the wall.

Q.4. ‘Jacob fell as he’d have wished’, the father said.

  1. The father said that Jacob has fallen as he would have wished.

  2. The father said that Jacob had fallen as he would have wished.

  3. The father said that Jocob had fallen as he had wished.

  4. The father said that Jacob had been fallen as he would have been wished.

Q.5. Arya said to Tara, ‘David will leave for his mother’s place tomorrow’.

  1. Arya told Tara that David will leave for his mother’s place tomorrow.

  2. Arys told Tara that David will leave for his mother’s place the next day.

  3. Arya told Tara that David would leave for his mother’s place the next day.

  4. Arya informed Tara that David would be leaving for his mother’s place the next day.

Q.6. The Professor said that nobody could solve the problem.

  1. The Professor said, ‘Nobody can solve the problem’.

  2. The Professor said, ’Nobody could solve the problem’

  3. The Professor exclaimed, ‘Nobody could solve the problem’

  4. The Professor exclaimed, ‘Nobody can solve the problem?’

Candidates willing to appear for various government exams should check the following links:

Bank Exams 2021

Q.7. She said, ‘Why didn’t you send a friend request to me?’

  1. She asked me why had I not sent a friend request to her

  2. She enquired why I had not sent a friend request to her.

  3. She enquired why I did not send a friend request to her.

  4. She questioned why I had not sent a friend request to her.

Q.8. The judge commanded them to call the accused in the court.

  1. The Judge said, ‘Call the accused in the court’.

  2. The Judge ordered, ‘Call the accused in the court’

  3. The Judge command, ‘Call the accused in the court’

  4. The Judge said to them, ‘Call the accused in the court’.

Q.9. The instructor asked Ronny if he was ready for the race.

  1. ‘Ronny, are you ready for the race?’, the instructor asked.

  2. ‘Are you ready for the race Ronny?’, the instructor asked.

  3. ‘Ronny, ready for race?’ the instructor said.

  4. ‘Ronny, are you ready for the race?’, said the instructor.

Q.10. Manager said to Shekher, ‘Why didn’t you attend the meeting yesterday?’

  1. The manager enquired Shekhar why did not he attend the meeting the day before.

  2. The manager asked Shekhar why he did not attend the meeting the previous day.

  3. The manager asked Shekhar why he had not attended the meeting the day before.

  4. The manager enquired Shekhar that why didn’t he attended the meeting yesterday.

Q.11. I asked my sister if she had returned the mobile phone to her friend.

  1. I said to my sister, ‘have you returned the mobile phone to your friend?’

  2. I said to my sister, ‘did you return the mobile phone to my friend?’

  3. I said to my sister, ‘have you returned the mobile phone to my friend?’

  4. I asked my sister, ‘have you return the mobile phone to your friend?’

Check out relevant links given below for assistance in the preparation of Verbal ability of competitive exams:

Q.12. She requested the interviewer to repeat the question.

  1. She asked the interviewer, ‘Please repeat the question’

  2. She said to the interviewer, ‘Could you please repeat the question?’

  3. She requested the interviewer, ‘Please repeat the question.’

  4. She asked the interviewer, ‘Could you please repeat the question?’

Q.13. ‘Be calm and listen to my speech’, She said. 

  1. She said that they should be calm and listen to her speech.

  2. She urged that they should be calm and listen to her speech

  3. She urged them to be calm and listen to her speech.

  4. She asked them to be calm and listen to her speech.

Q.14. Oreo said, ‘Alright, yes, you were right and I was wrong.’

  1. Oreo admitted that I had been right and he had been wrong.

  2. Oreo admitted that I was right and he was wrong.

  3. Oreo admitted that I have been right and he has been wrong.

  4. Oreo said that yes you were right and I was wrong.

Q.15. ‘Stand at ease’, The soldier said to his men.

  1. The soldier told his men that they should stand at ease.

  2. The soldier said to his men that they should stand at ease. 

  3. The soldier urged his to men to stand at ease

  4. The soldier commanded his men to stand at ease.

Q.16. The teacher told us that all the girls were playing in the garden.

  1. The teacher said, ‘all the girls are playing in the garden.’

  2. The teacher complained, ‘all the girls are playing in the garden.’

  3. The teacher said, ‘all the girls were playing in the garden.’

  4. The teacher said, ‘all the girls had been playing in the garden.’

Q.17. The guest said to them, ‘please give me a cup of coffee’

  1. The guest said to them please give me a cup of coffee.

  2. The guest requested them to give him a cup of coffee.

  3. The guest asked them to give him a cup of coffee.

  4. The guest requested them please give me a cup of coffee.

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Candidates can also check the links given below to understand the concept of word formation in English and to learn the common words in the English Language that are asked in most of the competitive exams-

Candidates can check out the following links for practice and revision:

Q.18. ‘You shall go to see the royal palace in the moonlit night’, the guide said.

  1. The guide told us that we should go to see the royal palace in the moonlit night.

  2. The guide told us we shall go to see the royal palace on a moonlit night.

  3. The guide suggested that we should go to see the royal palace in the moonlit night.

  4.  The guide suggested us to go to see the royal palace in the moonlit night.

Q.19. The traffic police asked the man not to park his vehicle there.

  1. The traffic police told the man, ‘not to park his vehicle there.’

  2. The traffic police asked the man, ‘Do not park your vehicle there.’

  3. The traffic police asked the man, ‘do not park your vehicle here’

  4. The traffic police told the man, ‘Do not park your vehicle here.’

Q.20. ‘Where will you be tomorrow’, She said, ‘In case I have to call you?’

  1. She enquired about his whereabouts the next day in case she would have to call him.

  2. She asked where he would be the next day in case she had to call him.

  3. She asked him where he will be the next day in case she had to call him.

  4. She said to him where he would be tomorrow in case she would have to call him. 

Practise the questions on direct and indirect speech to tackle these questions in the English section of various competitive exams with relative ease. 

Direct And Indirect Speech Exercise PDF:-Download PDF Here

Direct and indirect speech questions and answers are asked in the form of error spotting or sentence correction. Candidates can check important Sentence Correction questions in the given link.  

Video – Direct & Indirect Speech in English Grammar

English aptitude questions are less time taking and tricky than other sections. Candidates can master them with regular practice and revision. Given below are a few important English topics for reference:

For more such topics, visit the general English for competitive exams page. 

Aspirants preparing for various government exams can check concept-wise explanations of various topics covered in the syllabus of other sections of the exams.

Candidates preparing for government exams can check the latest syllabus of important examinations given below to strategize an effective study schedule:

For further queries. Details or assistance in preparation visit BYJU’S.

Government Exam 2020


Lesson on DIRECT and INDIRECT SPEECH (He said he had understood my lesson.)


We use the direct speech when are speaking. But if we want to report what someone else said we have to use indirect speech. To do that, we go a tense back to report it. There is an exception to this rule: when we are reporting something that is always true. Check out this video and start learning now! I’ll show you a few examples on how to use it, and two diagrams showing how to change from direct to indirect speech.
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Lesson on DIRECT and INDIRECT SPEECH (He said he had understood my lesson.)

Direct / Indirect Speech – أهم درس في الإنجليزية مع الأستاذ ناصري


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Direct / Indirect Speech - أهم درس في الإنجليزية مع الأستاذ ناصري

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech | English Grammar \u0026 Composition Grade 4 | Periwinkle


Direct Speech and Indirect Speech | English Grammar \u0026 Composition Grade 4 | Periwinkle
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Direct Speech and Indirect Speech | English Grammar \u0026 Composition Grade 4 | Periwinkle

Reported Speech


Reported Speech or Indirect speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not their exact words. We use reporting verbs like say, tell, ask, admit, promise, explain, announce, invite, etc.

Reported Speech

ENGLISH SPEECH | DEEPAK CHOPRA: 7 Steps to Success (English Subtitles)


Learn English with Deepak Chopra. Deepak Chopra, a pioneer of integrative medicine and personal transformation, spoke at the 2017 USC Baccalaureate Ceremony. The ceremony took place at Bovard Auditorium on May 11, 2017.
Deepak Chopra is an IndianAmerican author and alternative medicine proponent. A prominent figure in the New Age movement, his books and videos have made him one of the bestknown and wealthiest figures in alternative medicine.
In this speech, he also quotes: \”Create a vision for yourself. Get together with people who want to share your vision, bond with them, emotionally complement their strengths with your strengths. There’s nothing that cannot be accomplished when we share a vision together when we mind emotionally when we compliment each other’s strengths.\”
English subtitles make it even more enjoyable. Watch, learn, and share.
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Link to the original video:
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ENGLISH SPEECH | DEEPAK CHOPRA: 7 Steps to Success (English Subtitles)

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูวิธีอื่นๆMAKE MONEY ONLINE

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