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[NEW] �����ѧ�������Ѻ�ѡ������ | ผู้ถูกล่า ภาษาอังกฤษ – NATAVIGUIDES

ผู้ถูกล่า ภาษาอังกฤษ: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้

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Table of Contents

 

�ӹѡ�ҹ���¤����� ���¤��� �չ��� ������������ó  �Ѻ��Ҥ�������� ����ҭ� ��ռ���������Ф������ �ء��� �Ѻ�繷���֡�ҷҧ��ҹ������ �Ѻ�繷��¤������ҧ�����餴� ��͵�ŧ ��ʹ������ѭ�ҵ�ҧ�����ǡѺ��áԨ ��蹤���ͧ���繼��Ѵ����ô� ��蹤���ͧ�Ͷʹ�͹���Ѵ����ô� ��ͧ���¡�Թ�Դ�ѭ�ҡ������Թ �Դ�ѭ�Ҩ�ҧ�Ӣͧ  ��ͧ���Ҥ�դ�ͺ���� ��ͧ���¡�صä׹ ��ͧ�͹�ӹҨ����ͧ�������� ��ͧ���¡����ػ��������§�� ��ͧ�����Թ���� ��ͧ���¡��ҷ�᷹�ҡ˭ԧ����ʴ�������դ�������ѹ��ѹ�����ǡѺ�������

�����ѧ�������Ѻ�ѡ������    ���¹�����ѧ����ǵ���ʹ���Ѿ��                                                                                   

-��駿�ͧ

 

//  abandon       = ����з��, ��� (��ͧ)

 

=to intentionally and permanently give up, surrender, leave,

=to stop doing something, especially before it is finished; to stop having something

** They abandoned the match because of rain.

= �ǡ����ԡ����觢ѹ���н���

** We had to abandon any further attempt at negotiation.

= �ǡ��ҵ�ͧ�����ԡ����������㹡��ਨҵ���ͧ���д��Թ����

** The plaintiff abandoned his plaint by neglecting to proceed with the case.

**⨷���駿�ͧ������������Թ��յ���

 

intentionally        =        �µ���, ���ҧ����, ���ҧ���, ��ਵ��,       

                             =Syn.       deliberately,      intendedly,       voluntarily,

** She would never intentionally hurt anyone.

 �ͤ����������㨷��з�������

 

//  plaintiff           = ⨷��㹤����

                              =    the party who initiates a lawsuit by filing a complaint with …

                                    ���������·��������������蹤ӿ�ͧ���…..

** plaintiff (also complainant) = a person who brings a legal action against somebody in a lawcourt.

**The jury found for the plaintiff. = ����١�ع�Ѻ�ѧ����稨�ԧ�ҡ⨷��

// plaint       = �ӿ�ͧ��

**supplementary plaint = �ӿ�ͧ�������

** The plaint shall set forth clearly the nature of the plaintiff’s claims and of the relief applied for, as well as the allegations on which such claims are based. = �ӿ�ͧ����ʴ����駪Ѵ�����Ҿ��觢���Ңͧ⨷����ФӢͺѧ�Ѻ ��駢����ҧ������������ѡ��觢��������ҹ��

 

// neglect      = ����ҷ��Թ����, �����, �ԡ��

** The surety neglects to set up defence of the debtor against the creditor. = ����ӻ�Сѹ��������¡��͵�����ͧ�١˹���鹵�����������˹��

** The plaintiff neglects to proceed with the case within the fixed time. = ⨷���ԡ�������Թ����������ҷ���˹�

// proceed      = ���Թ (���, ��кǹ�Ԩ�ó�) �Ѵ���, ���Թ���

** We will proceed with the case. = ��Ҩд��Թ��յ���

** We may proceed an action against you. = ��Ҩд��Թ��աѺ��ҹ

** The Court proceeds according to Section 74. = ��Ŵ��Թ��õ���ҵ�� 74

 

// case           = �ó�, ���

** in any case = �óը������ҧ�á���

** as the case may be = ������ó�

** in no case = �����ҡó� � �

** petty-case = ����������

** non-cantentious case = �������բ�;Ծҷ

** proceedings of the case = ��кǹ�Ԩ�ó���觤��

 

// complainant       = �����ͧ�ء��

** According to English Law a complainant alleging rape, attempted rape, incitement to rape, or being an accessory to rape is allowed by statute to remain anonymous, evidence relating to her previous experience cannot be given unless the Court rules otherwise. =  

����������ѧ��ɼ����ͧ�ء��㹤�բ���׹, ����������׹, ��§����ա�â���׹ ���������㹡�â���׹ ���Ѻ͹حҵ�ҡ��������黡�Դ���� ����������Դ�¾�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ����ǡѺ�ĵԡ����ͧ���ʹյ�����������Ũ����դ���������ҧ���

 

 // legal            = ���������, ��������ͺ����

** legal representative = ���᷹�ªͺ����

// legal aid       = �����������������ͷҧ������ �� ���¤�����Ҥ�������١��������繤��ҡ�������Դ�����Ҥ���

// legal estate     = ���¶֧�Է��㹷��Թ����������ѧ��ɫ�觤���͹�����Ѻ�ͧ ��ҧ�Ѻ equitable estate ������Է�㹷��Թ�ҧ�ͤ�Ե��

// legal right      = ���¶֧�Է�Է���ЪҪ���������������

// law court (lawcourt) = ���

** His law office is situated near law courts = �ӹѡ�����¢ͧ�ҵ������������

// jury    = ����١�ع

** jury box = ���������Ѻ����١�ع��оԨ�óҤ��

// find    = �Ѻ�ѧ (����稨�ԧ)

** The Appeal Court is bound by the facts as found by the Court of Fist Instance. = ����ط�ó��ͧ��͵������稨�ԧ����Ѻ�ѧ������Ū�鹵�

// set forth   = �к�, ��¹���Ѵਹ

**Every plaint sould set forth a summary of facts or points of law relied upon. = �ӿ�ͧ�ء��Ѻ����к����Ѵਹ��觢���稨�ԧ�������Т�͡����·����ҧ�ԧ

// nature = ��Ҿ, �ѡɳ�

** The accused did not know the nature and illegality of his act while he was committing such offence. = �����������֧��Ҿ��Ф����Դ��������觡�á�зӢͧ��㹢�з���ҷӤ����Դ���

** The Appeal Court, on the grounds relating to the nature of the offence, has the power to give judgment to the other accused who did not appeal. = ���ǹ�������ǡѺ�ѡɳФ�� ����ط�ó����ӹҨ�Ծҡ�ҵ�ʹ件֧����·�������ط�ó�

// claim       = �Է�����¡��ͧ, ������¡��ͧ, ������¡��ͧ, �ӿ�ͧ

** His claim is barred by prescription. = �Է�����¡��ͧ�ͧ�ҢҴ���ؤ���

** Such claim must be entered not later than one year after the date of contravention. = ��ÿ�ͧ��ͧ��ͧ��з�����ҡ���˹�觻չѺ���ѹ����ҽ׹

** claim for divorece = �ӿ�ͧ����

** claim for rent = �ӿ�ͧ���¡������

// relief     = �����ش�鹨ҡ (����, �����ء���ҡ ) ��ûŴ����ͧ�ء��, �ӢͻŴ����ͧ�ء��

** The owner of the servient property obtains a total relief from the servitude by payment of compensation. = ��Ңͧ���·�Ѿ����ش�鹨ҡ���Ш�������¡�ê����Թ��ҷ�᷹

** The judgment creditor who has suffered damage may apply by motion to the Court for relief. = ���˹�����ӾԾҡ�ҷ�����Ѻ������������Ҩ��蹤���ͧ�����Ţ����Ŵ����ͧ�ء��

** The cases where relief applied for can be computed in terms of money. =

��շ���դӢͻŴ����ͧ�ء���Ҩ�ӹdz���Ҥ��Թ��

// apply = ��ѧ�Ѻ, ��蹤���ͧ

**In this case, the foregoing Section shall apply. = 㹡óչ�������ҵ�ҡ�͹����ѧ�Ѻ

** The defendant applies by motion to the Court for the case to be transferred to the Civil Court. = �������蹤���ͧ�·��繤Ӣ͵����Ţ�����͹�����ѧ�����

// allegation = ��á������, ��͡������, ��á������ҧ

** The plaintiff adduced an evidence in support of his allegation. =

⨷��Ӿ�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ�ѹ˹������׺����ʹѺʹع��͡������ҧ�ͧ��

// surety = ����ӻ�Сѹ

** surety for another surety = ����Ѻ���͹ (����ӻ�Сѹ�ͧ����ӻ�Сѹ)

** If several persons make themselves sureties for the same obligation, they are liable as joint debtors. = ��Һؤ�����¤����������繼���ӻ�Сѹ�˹��������ǡѹ ����ӻ�Сѹ����ҹ���դ����Ѻ�Դ���ҧ�١˹�������ѹ

// set up against = ¡��鹵�����

** The surety may set up against the creditor defences of the debtor. =

             ����ӻ�Сѹ�Ҩ¡��͵�����ͧ�١˹���鹵��������˹��

// defence = ��͵�����, �������, ��û�ͧ�ѹ

** The defendant puts up a defecnce constituting a contention as to ownership. =

                        �����¡��͵������繢�;Ծҷ����Ǵ��¡����Է���

** self defence = ��û�ͧ�ѹ��

** In order that a homicide may be justifiable on the ground of self-defence, the accused must have believed on reasonable ground that his life was in danger, and the force used by him must have been reasonably necessary for his protection. =

��÷������Դ�ҹ��Ҥ���¨��բ����������һ�ͧ�ѹ���ͧ ����¨е�ͧ���˵ؼ�������Ҫ��Ե�ͧ�ҵ�������ѹ���� �����������ѧ��ҷ����� ���ҧ���˵ؼ�  ���ͻ�ͧ�ѹ���ͧ

** ����� defence 㹤��������ѧ��ɻ����š������ԸվԨ�óҤ�������Ф����ҭҢͧ�� ���¤����֧ “��͵�����” ��㹤���ҭ������⨷����Ш������������˹�������������������繨���¨�ԧ   ��Ũ���ҹ���͸Ժ�¿�ͧ������¿ѧ and then asks whether or not he has committed the offcence and what will be his defence ��Ͷ���������ӼԴ��ԧ������� ���բ�͵��������ҧ�ú�ҧ �������������ҧ����騴��� ��ǹ㹤���� ��͵�����ͧ����¡��ͧ��������㹤�����÷����蹵����� (a defendant must set fort his defence in the answer submitted to the Court) ��㹡������ѧ��� ����� defence ���¶֧ ������âͧ�����㹤���觴���

// debtor = �١˹��

** joint debtor = �١˹������

** judgment debtor = �١˹�����ӾԾҡ��

// creditor = �������Թ����, ���˹��

** ordinary creditor = ���˹�����ѭ

** secured creditor = ���˹���ջ�Сѹ

** judgment creditor = ���˹�����ӾԾҡ��

// fix = ��˹�

** The Court fixes the day for settlement of issues. = ��š�˹��Ѵ�ѹ����ͧʶҹ

** Fixed term of the lease is three years. = �������ҷ���˹��ͧ�ѭ����� ��� �����

// allege = �������, �������ҧ

** He is alleged of having committed an offence. = �ҵ�ͧ��������зӤ����Դ

** Any party alleges any fact, the burden of proof lies on such party. = ����������㴡������ҧ����稨�ԧ�ѹ� ˹�ҷ����׺����������������¹��

// alleged offender = ����ͧ�� (������зӤ����Դ)

** When a person appearing before the inquiry official happens to be the alleged offender, the inquiry official shall inform him of the offence charged and he shall be made aware that whatever he shall say may be used as evidence against him in the trial. = ����ͻ�ҡ���� ���㴷����������˹�Ҿ�ѡ�ҹ�ͺ�ǹ�繼���ͧ����龹ѡ�ҹ�ͺ�ǹ�駢��������Һ��к͡����ҷ�Һ��͹��Ҷ��¤ӷ���ҡ���ǹ���Ҩ���繾�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ��ѡ�������㹡�þԨ�óҤ��

// rape      = �����Դ�ҹ����׹��зӪ����

** A man who has sexual intercourse with a woman against her will is guilty of rape. = ��¼������������dzաѺ˭ԧ��˭ԧ�����Թ��� �դ����Դ�ҹ����׹��зӪ����

// attempt      = (noun) ��þ�����

** An attempt to commit an offence is liable to two thirds of punishment provided for such offence. = ��þ�������зӤ����Դ�����ͧ��������˹�����Ѻ�����Դ���

// attempt      = (verb) ������

** He attempts to commit an offence. = �Ҿ�������зӤ����Դ

// incite       = (verb) ��§, �ѡ�ǹ (����зӼԴ)

** He incited a servant to steal his master’s property. = ����§��� ���� �ѡ��Ѿ��ͧ��¨�ҧ

// incitement      = (noun) �����§, ��êѡ�ǹ (����зӼԴ)

** Incitement may be by means of persuasion, threats, by words or by implication. = �����§�Ҩ���¡�êѡ�ǹ ��â����� �����Ҩ����ʹ��¡�á�з��蹹���»�����

// Accessory       = 㹡������ѧ������¶֧��������㹡�á�зӤ����Դ�� �Ҩ������͹��á�зӼԴ (before the fact) ������ѧ��á�зӼԴ (atfer the fact) ���¡�èѴ������ͧ���, ���ӻ�֡��, ��觡�� ���ͪ������ҧ����ҧ˹�� ��������������㹢�С�зӤ����Դ

// accessory      = ����ͧ�ػ�ó�, ����ػ�ó�

** Accessories are attached to the principal thing. = ����ͧ�ػ�ó�Դ����Ѻ��Ƿ�Ѿ���ѹ�繻�иҹ

** The debtor must pay the whole debt and accessories that are interest and compensation. = �١˹���ͧ����˹��������Ѻ����ػ�ó� ��ʹ͡������Ф���Թ�����᷹

** accessory part = ��ǹ������ػ�ó�

// allow       = ����Ѻ��� (������¡��ͧ) �ѧ��

** The Court gave juddgment for the plaintiff, the defendant apperaled, his appeal was allowed. = ��žԾҡ�����⨷�쪹Ф�� ������ط�ó� ����ª�Ф�� 㹪���ط�ó�

// statute      = �����·���Ң����ѧ�Ѻ

** Statutes consist of Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation. = �����»�Сͺ���� ����Ҫ�ѭ�ѵԷ���ҹ�Ѱ��� ��С������дѺ�ͧŧ�� (�蹾���Ҫ��ɮա�, ����з�ǧ)

// remain      = ��������������ͤ���Ҿ���

** to remain silent. = �ѧ������º����

// anonymous      = (��Ѻ��) ������ѡ�������ͻ��Դ����

** An anonymous caller told the police that a robbery was going to take place. = �ؤ�ż�������ʧ����͡������駵��Ǩ��Ҩ��ա�û���Դ���

// evidence      = (noun) ��ҹ��ѡ�ҹ

** The enquiry official shall collect every kind of evidence in order to know the facts and circumstances relating to the alleged offence. = ��龹ѡ�ҹ�ͺ�ǹ�Ǻ�����ҹ��ѡ�ҹ�ء��Դ ���ͷ�Һ����稨�ԧ��оĵԡ�ó��ҧ � �ѹ����ǡѺ�����Դ���١�������

** documentary evidence = ��ҹ�͡���

** oral evidence = ��ҹ�ؤ��

** material evidence = ��ҹ�ѵ��

** to take evidence = �׺��ҹ

** Evidence may be classified into direct and circumstantial evidence. Evidence is said to be “direct” when it consists of testimony concerning perception of fact in issue, and “circumstantial” when it consists of evidential facts. =

��ҹ��ѡ�ҹ�Ҩ��ṡ�͡������繾�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ�µç���;�ҹ�Ǵ���� ��ҹ��ѡ�ҹ���¡����繾�ҹ “�µç” ����ͻ�Сͺ������ѡ�ҹ�ѹ����ǡѺ�����������Թ����稨�ԧ㹻����, �繾�ҹ “�Ǵ����” ����ͻ�Сͺ���¢���稨�ԧ�ѹ�繾�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ��Сͺ

** The rule of primary and secondary evidence is now mainly important in relation to documents which must generally be proved by original which is primary evidence, copy which is secondary evidence was always excluded when primary evidence was available. =

��ѡ�ѹ����ǡѺ��ҹ��ѡ�ҹ���˹����Ъ���ͧ㹻Ѩ�غѹ��ǹ�˭��դ����Ӥѭ����ǡѺ�͡��ë���·���仨е�ͧ���٨���µ鹩�Ѻ�ѹ�繾�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ���˹�� ��ǹ�����͡��ë������ѡ�ҹ����ͧ�ж١�Ѵ�͡�����������վ�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ���˹�����ʴ�

// evidence      = (verb) �վ�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ

** The obligation is evidenced by writing. = ˹������ѡ�ҹ��˹ѧ���

** The transaction is required to be evidenced by writing. = �Ԩ��ù��١�ѧ�Ѻ��ҵ�ͧ����ѡ�ҹ��˹ѧ���

// evidence in rebuttal      = ���¶֧�óշ�����͹حҵ�����������·���׺��ҹ�ͧ���µ���������ǹӾ�ҹ���׺��������ա ��ҹ�������׺����������͡�ҡ��ʹѺʹع�����ҧ�ͧ���·����׺���� �ѧ�ѡ��ҧ (rebut) ��ҹ��ѡ�ҹ�ͧ���µç�����ա����

// relate       = ����Ǣ�ͧ�Ѻ

** offences relating to justice = �����Դ����ǡѺ����ص����

** the law relating thereto = ��������Ҵ��¡�ù��

** the regulation relating thereto = ��ͺѧ�Ѻ����ǡѺ��ù��

// previous      = ��������ͷ���Դ��鹡�͹˹�ҹ��

** Do you have previous experience of this type of work? = �س���ջ��ʺ��ó�����ǡѺ�ҹ����������������?

// previous conviction      = ��õ�ͧ���ʹյ

** A previous conviction may be proved when required to discredit a witness. = ����͵�ͧ��èз�����ҹ�Ҵ����������Ͷ���Ҩ���٨����Ҿ�ҹ�µ�ͧ�����ʹյ

// rule        = (verb) �ԹԨ��ª��Ҵ, �͡������º

** The judge ruled that he was the putative father of the child. = ���Ծҡ�����ԹԨ���������繺ԴҢͧ�� (����Դ�͡����)

** The court makes an order of ruling concerning the conduct of the case. = ������͡��������ͤӪ��Ҵ����ǡѺ��ô��Թ���

// rule       = (noun) ��ͺѧ�Ѻ, ��, ����º

** rules as to etiquette at the Bar = ����º����ǡѺ����ҷ�ͧ๵Ժѳ�Ե

** rule of Supreme Court (R.S.C.) = ��ͤ���觢ͧ����٧�ش (�ͧ�ѧ���) ��˹�����º�ԸվԨ�óҤ������

// otherwise       = ���ᵡ��ҧ������ҧ���

** Unless the Court rules otherwise. = �������Ũ����դ���������ҧ���

// representative       = ���᷹

** representative ad litem = ���᷹੾�Ф��

** legal representative = ���᷹�ªͺ����

** All acts done by a minor without the consent of his or her legal representative are voidable. = �����ѹ�����������з�ŧ�»��Ȩҡ������繪ͺ�ͧ���᷹�ªͺ����������������

// estate      = �ӹ���դ��������������ҧ

1. ���¶֧�ͧ�ô�

** This house is only a part of the asset of his estate. = ��ҹ��ѧ�������§��ǹ˹�觢ͧ�Թ��Ѿ����觡ͧ�ô��ͧ��

** A creditor of the estate may enforce his claim against the heir. = ���˹��ͧ�ô��Ҩ�ѧ�Ѻ�Է�����¡��ͧ�ͧ����Ҩҡ���ҷ

2. ���¶֧��Ѿ���Թ���������ؤ��˹�������� ������ѧ�������Ѿ�����¡��� personal estate �������ѧ�������Ѿ�����¡��� real estate

3. ����������ѧ������¶֧��ǹ������㹷��Թ �� estate in fee simple ���¶֧��ǹ������㹷��Թ������������ҧ�索Ҵ (absolute) ��Ңͧ�Ҩ������͵����ô�����ҷ�� ����� estate in fee tail ��Ңͧ��ǹ������㹷��Թ������੾�е����Ңͧ��ǹ�����¡Ѻ���ҷ�ѹ�Դ�ҡ�������ҹ�� ��ѧ�ҡ��鹨С�Ѻ��繢ͧ��Ңͧ��� ����� estate for life ��Ңͧ��ǹ������㹷��Թ����ǹ�����ª��Ǫ��Ե�ͧ����ҹ��

// estate      = (law) all the money and property that a person owns, especially that which is left at her of his death.

** Her estate was divided between her four children.

// right        = �Է��

** Every person, in the exercise of his rights, must act in good faith. = 㹡�����Է�Ԣͧ�� �ء����ͧ��з����ب�Ե

** real right = ��Ѿ��Է��

** personal right = �ؤ���Է��

** right of recourse = �Է���������

** right of claim = �Է�����¡��ͧ

** right of privacy = �Է���֤�����������ǹ���

** right of entry = �Է�Է������� (㹷��Թ, �Ҥ�ú�ҹ���͹�����)

** right of retention = �Է���ִ˹�ǧ

** right represented by a written instrument = �Է���ѹ�յ�����

** right of inheritance = �Է���Ѻ�ô�

** preferential right = ������Է��

** statutory right = �Է���¸��� (��ô�)

// right       = a just, proper or legal claim; a thing that one is entitled to do or have by law.

** What right have you/What gives you the right to do that?

** You have no right to stop me from going in there.

** exercise one’s legal rights.

** have no rights as a US citizen.

** animal rights campaigners.

** the right to remain silent.

** Everyone has a right to a fair trial.

** Do the police have the right of arrest in this situation?

** He’s quite within his rights to demand an enquiry.

** I know my rights.

// rights      = a legal authority or claim to something.

** buy/ownthemovie/translation/foreign rights

** all rights reserved.

// right       = (adjective) ���١��ͧ, ���ͺ

** Keep on the right side of the law. = �����ҷӼԴ������

// situated        = ��������� � ���˹�����ͷ����˹�˹��

** The hotel is conveniently situated close to the beach.

// The Appeal Court = ����ط�ó�

// the Court of Fisrst Instance = ��Ū�鹵�

// appeal      = (noun) �ط�ó�

** An appeal shall lie to the Appeal Court against any judgment of the Court of First Instance. = �ط�ó�ӾԾҡ����Ū�鹵������蹵������ط�ó�

** a petition of appeal = ��ͧ�ط�ó�

// appeal      = (verb) ����ط�ó�

** The Civil Court gave judgment for the plaintiff, the defendant appealed. = ������դӾԾҡ�����⨷�쪹Ф�� ���������ط�ó�

// appeal (law) = an act of asking for a legal case to be judged again.

** lodge an appeal.

** have the rgiht of appeal.

** an appeal court

// summary    = �����ػ�Ǻ�Ѵ

 ** summary trial = ��þԨ�óҤ�����Ǻ�Ѵ

 ** summary jurisdiction = �ӹҨ��þԨ�óҤ�մ���Ǻ�Ѵ

 ** summary of facts = ����稨�ԧ�����

// point       = ���, ��

 ** point of fact = ����稨�ԧ

 ** point of law = ��͡�����

 ** point of dispute = ����繢�;Ծҷ

// rely        = ���Ͷ��, ��觾������

 ** Both parties may rely upon the same evidence. = ����������ͧ�������Է����ҧ�ԧ (�����) ��ҹ��ѡ�ҹ�ѹ���ǡѹ

// The accused        = ������(����ҭ�)

 ** The accused is brought before the Court. = ����¶١�ӵ����������˹�����

// illegality       = �������ͺ���¡�����

 ** This contract is unforceable because fo its illegality. = �ѭ�ҹ��ѧ�Ѻ������� �������ѭ�����ͺ���¡�����

// commit       = ��з�

 ** He has just committed an offence. = ��������зӤ����Դ

// offence      = �����Դ

 ** Where an offence has been commited, the wrongdoer is liable to punishment. = ������ա�á�зӼԴ ����зӼԴ������ͧ�Ѻ��

 ** compoundable offence = �����Դ�ѹ���������

 ** non-compoundable offence = �����Դ�����������ѹ�����

 ** several distinct and different offences = �����Դ���¡�����ҧ�ѹ

 ** flagrant offence = �����Դ���˹��

 ** offence committed by negligence = �����Դ��з��»���ҷ

 ** property obtained throught an offence = ��Ѿ�������¡�á�зӼԴ

 ** property which its possession constitutes an offence. = ��Ѿ����������繤����Դ

 ** petty offence = �����Դ�����

 ** serious offence = �����Դ�ء���è�

// ground      = ���, ����˵�

 ** on the ground that… = ���������ŷ�����….

 ** without legal ground = ���Ȩҡ����ѹ����ҧ��������

 ** on legitimate round = ���������ѹ�ͺ���¡�����

 ** on the ground of prescription = ��������������ؤ���

 ** sufficient ground = ����ž�

 ** reasonable ground = ����˵��ѹ�����

 ** ground of challenge = ����˵���觡�äѴ��ҹ(���Ծҡ��)

 ** ground of avoidance = �����觡�ú͡��ҧ, ����ѹ�к͡��ҧ��

 ** He has reasonable grounds to believe that his act was within his authority. = ��������˵��ѹ����÷���������ҡ�á�зӢͧ���������㹢ͺ�ӹҨ

 ** When prescription has not been set up as a defence, the Court cannot dismiss the claim on the ground of prescription. = ����� (�����) �����¡������ؤ����繢�͵����� ��Ũ���ҧ������ؤ����������¡��ͧ�����

 ** A creditor is in default if, without legal ground, he does not accept the performance tendered to him. = ����١˹��ͻ�Ժѵԡ�ê���˹�������˹�� ������˹������Ѻ����˹���»��Ȩҡ����˵��ѹ����ҧ����������� ��ҹ������˹�鵡�繼��Դ�Ѵ

 ** The creditor can demand interest during default higher than 7.5 percent per annum on any legitimate ground. = ���˹������ö���¡�͡���������ҧ�Դ�Ѵ��ѵ���٧���������� 7.5 ��ͻ� �����������ѹ�ͺ���¡�����

 ** The third person has reasonable grounds to believe that the agent has acted within his authority. = �ؤ����¹͡������˵��ѹ����÷���������ҵ��᷹���зӡ�����㹢ͺ�ӹҨ�ͧ��

** Any judge may be challenged on any of the following grounds. = ���Ծҡ���Ҩ�١�Ѵ��ҹ����˵���˵�˹�觴ѧ���仹��

// judgment      = �ӾԾҡ��

** Judgment of death = �ӾԾҡ�һ����ê��Ե

** judgment debtor = �١˹�����ӾԾҡ��

** Judgment was given for the plaintiff by a majority. = ��žԾҡ�����⨷�쪹Ф�������§��ҧ�ҡ

** Judgment was entered for the defendant. = ��žԾҡ��������ª�Ф��

** The Court gave judgment for the defendant. = ��žԾҡ��������ª�Ф��

** The Court gave judgment in favour of Mr. A. = ��žԾҡ����� ������� �� ��Ф��

** Mr. A obtained judgment against Mr. B. = ������� �� ����������� ��

// bar      (noun)      = ����������ѧ����դ��������������ҧ

** ���¶֧������������׹�Ѻ�ѧ��þԨ�óҤ�� = prisoner at bar

** ���¶֧����跹�¤������׹��Ҥ���������١�������� �й�� �֧���¡���¤������ barrister

** ���¶֧ʶҺѹ�ԪҪվ�ͧ���¤���������¡���๵Ժѳ�Ե����

** ���¶֧��þԨ�óҤ�բͧ�١�ع = trial at bar

** ���¶֧��ҹ������ҫ�����Ѻ͹حҵ���������

** The principles governing practice rules relating the conduct and etiquiette at the Bar were laid down by the General Council of the Bar. =

��ѡࡳ���ҧ� ����ǡѺ������оĵ��������ҷ㹡����Ҥ�����١��Ң���¤�С������๵Ժѳ�Ե����

// bar       (verb) = ����, �Ѵ�Է��

** A claim is barred by prescription. = ��ÿ�ͧ����Է�����¡��ͧ��з�����������ؤ���

** He is barred from bringing an action by presription. = �Ҷ١�Ѵ�Է���������ͧ��� ���ТҴ���ؤ���

// prescription      = ���ؤ��� (�ҧ�� ���ͷҧ�ҭ�)

** The right under the contract has been lost by prescription. = �Է�Ե���ѭ�ҹ���٭���������������ؤ���

** The prosecution is precluded by prescription. = ��ÿ�ͧ����ҭҶ١�ӡѴ (����) �����ؤ���

** The case is barred by prescription. = ��բҴ���ؤ���

** acquisitive prescription = ���ؤ������Է��

// enter       = ����͡���, ��ͧ���, ���ѭ��, ŧ�ѭ��, (�ӾԾҡ��) ��骹Ф��

** Had he known of the fact, he would not have entered into the contract. = ��������Һ����稨�ԧ �Ҥ������ҷ��ѭ��

** No action can be entered later than ten years after such act. = �����������ͧ�������;��Ժ����ѧ�ҡ�Դ��á�з��蹹��

** The bank has entered this item in the current account. = ��Ҥ����ŧ��¡�ù��㹺ѭ�ա��������ѹ

** The Public Prosecutor shall not enter a charge in Court without inquiry having been held. = ��������龹ѡ�ҹ��¡�ÿ�ͧ��յ������������ա���ͺ�ǹ����ǡѺ����ҹ�鹡�͹

** The judgment is entered for the defendant. = ��žԾҡ��������ª�Ф��

// contravention       = ��ý�ҽ׹

** He has acted in contravention of the law. = �����зӡ���ѹ�繡�ý�ҽ׹������

// divorce       = �������

** action for divorce = ��տ�ͧ����

** divorce by mutual consent = ��������¤����Թ�������ͧ����

** divorce by judgment = ��������¤ӾԾҡ�Ңͧ���

** Divorce may be effected only by mutual consent or by judgment of the court. = ������Ҩз������¤����Թ�������ͧ���������¤ӾԾҡ�Ңͧ���

** If one spouse has deserted the other for more than one year the other may enter an action for divorce. =

���������������Ҩ���з����ҧ�ա����˹����Թ����˹�觻� �ա����˹�觿�ͧ������

//division       = �����

** division per stirpes = ������ô����������ͭҵ� (����ա���Ѻ�ô�᷹���ѹ��)

** division per capita. = ������ô���������Է�Ԣͧ���ͧ (����Ѻ᷹��������)

** Division of estate between the statutory heirs shall be as follows. = ������ô� �����ҧ���ҷ�¸�������繴ѧ���仹��

** As between the descendants entitled by way of representation to the division per stirpes, if there are descendants of different degrees, only the children of the deceased who are the nearest in degree are entitled to receive the inheritance. =

�����ҧ����׺�ѹ�ҹ����Ѻ�ô�᷹���ѹ���ǹ˹�觢ͧ���˹�� � ��Ҽ���׺�ѹ�ҹ��ҧ��鹡ѹ�صâͧ����·������㹪��ʹԷ����ش��ҹ�����Է���Ѻ�ô�

// servient property (or servient tenement)         =���·�Ѿ������������Ҵ������Ш����

// servitude       = ���Ш����

** The owner of the immovable property subjected to a servitude is bound to suffer certain acts affecting his property for the benefit of another immovable property. =

��Ңͧ��ѧ�������Ѿ���赡��������Ш������ͧ����Ѻ�����ҧ���ҧ��觡�з��֧��Ѿ���Թ�ͧ�����ͻ���¢������ѧ�������Ѿ�����

// obtain      = ���Ѻ

** to obtain advice = ���Ѻ���й�

** to obtain information = ���Ѻ�����Ţ������

// compensation         = ����Թ�����᷹

** compensation for the injury = ����Թ�����᷹���ͤ����������

** Compensation is monetary payment to compensate for loss and damage. = ����Թ�����᷹ ��͡�è����Թ���ͪ��¤����٭�������ͤ����������

// suffer        = ���Ѻ (������)

** He is discharged from the obligation to the extent of the injury suffered by him. = ����ش�鹨ҡ˹����ҷ�������Ѻ�����������

** He is bound to suffer certain acts affecting his property. = �Ҽ١�ѹ��ͧ�Ѻ�����ҧ���ҧ����з���Ѿ���Թ�ͧ��

// motion         = ��žԹԨ, ���������������, ����ͧ�����������, �ѵ�Է����蹵�ͷ���Ъ��

** The Court may, of its own motion, issue an order, = ����Ҩ���žԹԨ�ͧ��������͡�����

** of its own motion = ���´�žԹԨ�ͧ����ͧ

** He files a motion for summon. = ����蹤���ͧ���͢�����͡�������¡

** He applies to the Court by motion. = ����蹤Ӣ��·��繤���ͧ������

** A member of the House fo Representtives has submitted a motion abridging the expenditures. = ��Ҫԡ��Ҽ��᷹��ɮ����ʹ��íѵ�ԵѴ�͹��¨���

** A motion for amendment must be presented by any member. = �ѵ�Ԣ�������������ͧ�Ҩҡ��Ҫԡ���㴼��˹��

// compute           = �ӹdz = to calculate something, especially with a computer

** Scientists can accurately compute the course of the rocket. �ѡ�Է����ʵ������ö�ӹdz���Զա���Թ�ҧ�ͧ�ջ���ظ�����ҧ�����

** He computed his losses at 500,000 baht. = �Ҥӹdz����������¢ͧ�ҷ������ʹ�ҷ

// foregoing         = ������Ǣ�ҧ��

** The Court shall proceed with the case as provided in the foregoing paragraph. = �����Ŵ��Թ���仴ѧ���ѭ�ѵ�������ä��͹

// section          = �ҵ��

** The provision of Section 681 shall apply mutatis mutandis. = ��������ҵ�� 681 ����ѧ�Ѻ��͹����

** Sub-Section = ͹��ҵ��

** Section 193 bis and ter of the Criminal Procedure Code. = �ҵ�� 193 ��� ��� ��� ��觻����š������ԸվԨ�óҤ����ҭ�

// damage        = �����������

See also  (이)라도 \"Even,\" \"At least,\" \"Or something\" | Live Class Abridged | at least การใช้

** An employer is liable for damage done by his employee in the course of his employment. =

��¨�ҧ��ͧ�Ѻ�Դ���ͤ���������·���١��ҧ���з��㹷ҧ��÷���ҧ

** The rule as to the remoteness of damage will be discussed. The distinction between the remote and proximate damage is very hard to draw. =

��ࡳ��������ǡѺ����������·����ҧ�Ũ����Ѻ��þԨ�ó� ����ᵡ��ҧ�����ҧ����������·����ҧ�šѺ����������·�����Դ����ҡ���Тմ�����������

// damages        = ���������� (������ѧࡵ���������ٻ�ͧ “��پ���” ����)

** The claim for damages is barred by prescription after ten years from the day when the wrongful act was commiitted. =

�Է�����¡��ͧ���������¢Ҵ���ؤ�������;��Ժ�չѺ���ѹ��������Դ

** Where the parties agree beforehand what sum shall be payable by way of damages in the event of breach, it is called liquidated damages. =

㹡óշ�����ѭ�ҵ�ŧ�ѹ�����ǧ˹����� 㹡óռԴ�ѭ�ҨШ��¤��������¡ѹ���� ���¡��Ҥ��������·�赡ŧ�ѹ���

** nominal damages = ����������㹹�� (���繾Ը�)

See also  หนีเที่ยวภูเก็ต 3 วัน 2 คืน พักผ่อนได้ พักถ่ายรูปไม่ได้จริงๆ @Villa Zolitude| NubNubbb | แพ็ ค กระเป๋า

** The main purpose of awarding damages in tort, as in the case of breach of contract, is to compensate the plaintiff for the loss he has suffered. =

�ѵ�ػ��ʧ���˭�ͧ��è��¤��������·ҧ����Դ������͡óռԴ�ѭ�Ҥ�����ͪ�������٭���·��⨷�����Ѻ

** Nominal damages are awarded when the plaintiff can prove that his right has been infringed, but is unable to prove any actual damages. = ��������������§㹹���Ш�������������⨷����٨������§����Ҷ١����Դ�Է�� ���������ö���٨�������������ѹ���ԧ

// defendant          = ����� (㹤����)

** ����������ѧ��ɤӹ�����¶֧����¤���ҭҷ��١��ͧ 㹤����Դ���� (misdemeanour) ����

** joint defendant = ���������

// transfer         = (verb) �͹

** A claim may be transfered. = �Է�����¡��ͧ�Ҩ�͹�ѹ��

** She had transferred her house to her daughter before she died. = �����͹��ҹ�ͧ������١��ǡ�͹�͵��

// transfer        = (noun) ����͹

** the transfer of the ownership of the property = ����͹�����Է�����觷�Ѿ���Թ

** No transfer of immovable property is complete unless is made in writing and is registered by the competent official. =

����͹��ѧ�������Ѿ�������������ó� �����з�������ѡɳ��ѡ����Ш�����¹��;�ѡ�ҹ���˹�ҷ��

** The company may decline to register a transfer of shares on which a call is due. = ����ѷ�Ҩ������������¹����͹��鹡��� �ҡ�Թ������¡�������ѧ��ҧ��������

** Transfer �դ��������繡���͹����͹ assignment �� assignment �ѡ����㹡���͹�Է�����¡��ͧ (claim) �͹�Է�Ե�ҧ � �� �͹�Է�Ե���ѭ����� (assignment of lease) ��ǹ����͹�����Է���㹷�Ѿ���Թ �� ����͹���Թ, �͹��ҹ, �͹��� �ѡ������ transfer ������衮��µ��

// adduce       = ����

** The accused has the right to adduce any evidence to prove his innocence. = ��������Է�ԹӾ�ҹ��ѡ�ҹ� � ���׺���;��٨���������ط���ͧ��

// obligation =          ˹��

** By virtue of the obligation, the creditor is entitiled to claim performance from the debtor. =

�����ӹҨ������˹�� ���˹���������Է�Ԩ����¡����١˹�����˹����

** He promises to be responsible for any obligation incurred. =

���ѭ����Ҩ��Ѻ�Դ�ͺ�˹��� � ����Դ���

** subject ofobligation =                �ѵ�����˹��

// constitute =                          �Ѵ���, ��Сͺ�ѹ�� (�������˹��)

** The King appoints the Prime Minister and 48 Ministers to constitute a Council of Ministers. = �����ҡ�ѵ����ç��С�س��ô����� �觵�駹�¡�Ѱ���������Ѱ����� 48 ����Сͺ�繤���Ѱ�����

** Five members constitute a quorum. =

        ��Ҫԡ 5 �� ��Сͺ��ͧ���Ъ��

** He put up a defence constituting contention as to ownership. = 

     ��������õ����餴���¡������������ǡѺ�����Է���

** The point at issue in this case is whether the fact proved constitutes the offence charged. = ����繷���Ӥѭ㹤�չ������� ����稨�ԧ�����٨�������ǹ��

 ��Сͺ�ѹ�繤����Դ����������������

// contention =                            ��������, ��;Ծҷ, ��õ����� (���)

** He filed the document as evidence in support of his contentions. =     

              ������͡����繾�ҹʹѺʹع�������駢ͧ��

** He had good faith in the contention of his case. =

              ���դ����ب�Ե�㹡�õ����餴բͧ��

** contention as to ownership = ��;Ծҷ��Ҵ��¡����Է���

// homicide           = ����������ѧ��� ���¶֧��æ�Ҥ� ��æ�Ҥ��Ҩ��з��ªͺ���¡����� �� ���Ǩ�ԧ������Ѻ���������м�����µ�� �����բ�����ǵ�������� �����Ҩ�繡�æ�������ͺ���¡����� ����繡�æ�������ͺ���¡����� ���͡�� 3 ������ ��� murder, manslaughter ��� infanticide

// homicide           = �ҵ����, ���ŧ��ͦ��, ��æ�Ҥ� = the killing of one person by another, (=murder)

** be accused of homicide = ��ͧ����Ҧ�Ҥ����

** homicile cases = ��զ�Ҥ����

// justifiable           = (��ҹ��� “�Ѫ�Կ�����к’�) ���������, �����ҧ�繢��������, �ͺ�����˵ؼ�, ����ö�������ҧ�˵ؼ���ʹѺʹع�����������

= that can be justified

** His actions were ellegal but justifiable on moral grounds.

= ��á�зӢͧ�������Ҩ����ͺ���´��¡����� �����˵ؼž��Ѻ�������ͧ��Ÿ���

** His action was entirely justifiable.

= ��á�зӢͧ�����˵ؼžͷ����Ѻ��ء��С��

** justifiable act = ��á�зӷ����ҧ�繢��������

** Self-defence is considered justifiable in an act of homicide.

= ��û�ͧ�ѹ���ͧ����繢��������㹡�á�зӼԴ�ҹ��Ҥ����

// force          = �ç, ���ѧ���;�ѧ

** The force of the explosion knock them to the ground. =

�ç���;�ѧ�ͧ������Դ���ᷡ�ǡ��仡ͧ�Ѻ���

// force           = �ӹҨ�ѧ�Ѻ, �źѧ�Ѻ

** This Act will come into force on the 1st January next year. =

����Ҫ�ѭ�ѵԩ�Ѻ�����ռ���ѧ�Ѻ��ѹ��� 1 ���Ҥ� ��˹��

** The warrant of arrest shall remain in force until the alleged offender has been arrested. = ���¨Ѻ�ѧ���� �ѧ�Ѻ�����訹���Ҽ���ͧ�Ҩж١�Ѻ���

** the legislative, executive or judicial force. = �źѧ�Ѻ㹷ҧ�ԵԺѭ�ѵ�, ������, ���͵��ҡ��

// joint           = �����ѹ (share, held or done by two or more people together)

** joint debtor = �١˹������

** joint creditor = ���˹������

** joint plaintiff = ⨷������

** joint defendant = ���������

** joint tortfeasors = ����з�����Դ����

** If a surety is bound as a joint-debtor, he has no right to require the creditor to demand performance by the debtor first. =

��Ҽ���ӻ�Сѹ�Ѻ�Դ���ҧ�١˹������ ��������Է�Է������§������˹�����¡��ͧ�١˹�����˹���͹

// settlement       =         ��ê��Ҵ, ��á�˹� (�����), ������º��º���, ��ê���˹��, ��ê���ͧʶҹ

= an official agreement that ends an argument or a dispute. = ��͵�ŧ���ҧ�繷ҧ�����Ң�͢Ѵ������͢�;Ծҷ�ЧѺ

** an out-of-court settlement = ��͵�ŧ�͡���

** After the settlement of issues, the Court shall issue a summons fixing the day of taking evidence. =

��ѧ�ҡ��ê���ͧʶҹ (��˹�����繹��׺) ��Ũ��͡���¡�˹��ѹ�׺��ҹ

** Please allow me to postpone settlement of your account. = ��س�͹حҵ��������͹��ê���˹��㹺ѭ���͡��ա

** settlement of disputes = ��ê��Ҵ��;Ծҷ, ��õ�ŧ�ѹ�ЧѺ��;Ծҷ

** The offender has complied with the settlement. = ����зӼԴ�黯ԺѵԵ��������º��º���

** The Court fixes the day for settlement of issues. = ��š�˹��Ѵ�ѹ����ͧʶҹ

// term         =      ��������, ��ǧ����, ���͹�

= a period of time for which something lasts, a fix or limited time

** a long term of imprisonment. = ��èӤء�����ҹҹ

** at the end of the term of the lease = ����ش������������ѭ�����

** The lessee shall vacate the leased premises at the end of lthe term of the lease. = ���������͡�ҡʶҹ���������������ش������������ѭ�����

** The deposit will be refunded at the end of the term of the lease. = �Ѵ�Ө����Ѻ�׹���������ش������������ѭ�����

// lease      =       �ѭ�����, ���������

= a contract by which the owner of land or of a building allows another person to use it for a specified time, usually in return for rent.

** take out a lease on a commercial property. = �ӷ�Ѿ���Թ(�Ҥ�þҳԪ��)�͡������

** A lease of immovable property must be made in writing, otherwise it is unenforceable. =

�ѭ�������ѧ�������Ѿ���ͧ����˹ѧ��� �ԩй�鹨п�ͧ��ͧ���ѧ�Ѻ��������

** A lease is a contract by which one party a lessor, gives to another, a lessee, the use and possession of land buildings, property, etc., for a specific time and fixed payment. =

�����Ҥ���ѭ�ҷ��ؤ��˹�觤�ͼ�������� �������ա�ؤ��˹�觤�ͼ�����������Ф�ͺ��ͧ���Թ �Ҥ�� ��Ѿ���Թ ��� ��������������դ����ҷ���˹����

// lease       =       (verb) ������

= to permit or obtain the use of something in exchange for rent. = �����������ͤ�ͺ��ͧ�������˹�������š�Ѻ������

** lease a car. = ���ö¹��

** He leases his house to John. = ����������Һ�ҹ�ͧ��

// secure               =(verb) ��Ҥ�ӻ�Сѹ, �Ѻ��Сѹ

= to make something safe; to protect something

** Can the town be secured against attack? = ����ö�Ѻ��Сѹ���������������ͧ�������١����

** A future obligation can be secured in the event that it would take effect. =

˹���͹Ҥ����Ҩ��ӻ�Сѹ�� �����˵ء�ó���˹���鹨��繼����ԧ

** secured creditor = ���˹���ջ�Сѹ�� ���˹��ӹͧ ���˹��ӹ� ���˹�����ա�ä�ӻ�Сѹ

// burden              = ����˹�ҷ��

= a duty, an obligation, a responsibility, etc that is not wanted or causes troble.

** the burden of heavy taxation on the taxpayer. =

����˹�ҷ��ͧ�������������ѵ���٧

** burden of proof = ˹�ҷ����׺

** The burden of proof of facts lies on the party alleging such fact. =

˹�ҷ����׺����稨�ԧ������������������ҧ�ԧ����稨�ԧ���

** At criminal trial, the burden of proof is borne by the prosecution on every issue. =

㹡�þԨ�óҤ���ҭ�˹�ҷ����׺������Ѻ����⨷��ء�����

** Any party alleges any fact, the burden of proof lies on such party. =

����������㴡������ҧ����稨�ԧ�ѹ� ˹�ҷ����׺����������������¹��

// appear         = �����, ��������˹�����

= for a party or an attorney to show up in court. = ���������ͷ��¤����ͧ�����������

= to attend a lawcourt in order to give evidence or anser a charge.

** appear as a witness = �����㹰ҹо�ҹ

** appear before magistrates. = ��������˹�Ҽ��Ծҡ��

** The debtor is summoned to appear in the action. =

�١˹�����Ѻ�������¡�����㹤��

** The plaintiff may enter a petty case by appearing in person to state his claim. =

⨷���Ҩ��ͧ�����������������������ŧ����Ҵ��µ��ͧ

// inquiry            = ������ǹ (�����), �������ǹ (����ҭ�)

= asking; inquiring :

** a court of inquiry = ����к����ǹ

** The poice are following several lines of inquiry. = ���˹�ҷ����Ǩ���ѧ�ͺ�ǹ����»����

** The Court makes an inquiry on the application for a temporary injunction. =

������ǹ����ͧ������դ���觤�����ͧ���Ǥ���

** inquiry official = ��ѡ�ҹ�ͺ�ǹ

** additional inquiry = ����ͺ�ǹ�������

// trial                  = ��þԨ�óҤ��

= a formal examination of evidence in court by a judge and often a jury, to decide if sb accused of a crime is guilty or not:

** a murder trial = ��þԨ�óҤ�զҵ����

** She will stand trial / go on trial for fraud. = �ͨд��Թ��þԨ�óҤ�թ��⡧����

** After the settlement of issues, the Court shall proceed with the trial of the case. =

��ѧ�ҡ��ê���ͧʶҹ (��á�˹���������˹�ҷ����׺) �����Ŵ��Թ��þԨ�ó�Ҥ�յ���

** fair trial = ��þԨ�óҤ�������§����

// intercourse             = �����������ѹ�� , �����������dz�

** The prosecution stated that intercourse had occurred on several occasions. = ��ô��Թ����к���ҡ����������dz����Դ�բ�����¤���

** anal intercourse = �����������dzշҧ����˹ѡ

// sexual              = �ҧ��

** He had sexual intercourse against her will. = �Ң���׹��зӪ������

** to gratify the sexual desire of another person. = �ӡ�������������稤������ͧ������

// will               = �Թ�¡���, ਵ��, ��������

= what somebody wants to happen in a particular situation

= a legal document that says what is to happen to somebody’s money and property after they die.

** I don’t want to go against your will. = �ѹ����ͧ��÷��з����÷��Ѵ�������ʧ��ͧ��

** My father left me the house in his will. = �ԴҢͧ����¡��ҹ��ѧ��������¾Թ�¡���

** A minor after attaining fifteen years of age can make a will. = �������������ض֧�Ժ��һ����� �ӾԹ�¡�����

** We cannot make performance against the will of the debtor. = ����������ö����˹���½׹ਵ�Ңͧ�١˹��

** A will is a declaration made by a testator in the form required by law, of what he disires to be done after his death.

�Թ�¡����繡�û�С��ਵ�Ңͧ����ô����ӵ��Ẻ��衮���¡�˹���� �ʴ�����һ��ö�Ҩ�����з����ҧ����ѧ�ҡ�ó�����ͧ��

��ӻ�Сѹ

Suretyship

· Surety (noun) ����ӻ�Сѹ ��ѡ��Сѹ

· 1. money given to support a promise that somebody will pay their debts, perform a duty,etc; a guarantee: offer $100 as a surety.

money given = �Թ����������� to support a promise that = �����׹�ѹ��͵�ŧ������ somebody will pay their debts = �ҨЪ���˹�����

· 2. a person who makes herself or himself responsible for the payment of debts, ets by somebody else: act as surety for somebody.

· Surety for another surety ����Ѻ���͹ (����ӻ�Сѹ�ͧ����ӻ�Сѹ)

· If several persons make themselves sureties for the same obligation, they are liable as joint debtors.

*�ؤ�����¤����������繼���ӻ�Сѹ�˹��������ǡѹ ����ӻ�Сѹ����ҹ���դ����Ѻ�Դ���ҧ�١˹�������ѹ

Suretyship ��ä�ӻ�Сѹ

** A contract of suretyship is not enforceable by action unless there be an evidence in writing signed by the surety.

– �ѭ�Ҥ�ӻ�Сѹ�����������ѡ�ҹ��˹ѧ��� ŧ�����ͪ��� ����ӻ�Сѹ ��ҹ��Ҩп�ͧ��ͧ���ѧ�Ѻ����������

– ����������ѧ��� contract of suretyship �Ѻ contract of guarantee �դ����������ҧ���ǡѹ

����� suretyship �դ�����������繡�ä�ӻ�Сѹ ����͹�Ѻ����� guarantee (���� guaranty) 㹵��ҡ������ѧ��������� Contract of guarantee ���� Contract of suretyship �������ͧ���ҧ ����դ�����������͹�ѹ

����Ѻ���������ѧ��ɢͧ�����š���������оҳԪ�� �������� Contract of suretyship 㹤������¢ͧ�ѭ�Ҥ�ӻ�Сѹ

Security ��ѡ��Сѹ

** A thing of value, eg one’s house, that can be used to make sure that one will pay back borrowed money or keep a promise: lend money on security (ie in return for something given as security)

** An earnest serves as a security that the contract shall be performed.

– �Ѵ��������ѡ��Сѹ����ѭ�Ҩ����Ѻ��û�Ժѵ�

** The Court may order the applicant to deposit money as security.

– ����Ҩ������������ͧ�� �ҧ�Թ�繻�Сѹ

Section 680 Suretyship is a contract whereby a third person, called the surety, binds himself to a creditor to satisfy an obligation in the event that the debtor fails to perform it.

A contract of suretyship is not enforceable by action unless lthre be some written evidence signed by the surety.

�ѹ��Ҥ�ӻ�Сѹ��鹤���ѭ�ҫ�觺ؤ����¹͡��˹�� ���¡��Ҽ���ӻ�Сѹ�١�ѹ��������˹�餹˹�� ���ͪ���˹���������١˹��������˹����

͹���ѭ�Ҥ�ӻ�Сѹ��� �����������ѡ�ҹ��˹ѧ������ҧ����ҧ˹��ŧ�����ͪ��ͼ���ӻ�Сѹ���Ӥѭ �ҹ��Ҩп�ͧ��ͧ���ѧ�Ѻ����������

*��֡�ҡ����� ��֡�ҷ��¤����չ���  ��  085 960 4258  *

[NEW] พวกแชร์ลูกโซ่ ภาษาอังกฤษเรียกว่าอะไร? | ผู้ถูกล่า ภาษาอังกฤษ – NATAVIGUIDES

แชร์ลูกโซ่ ภาษาอังกฤษเรียกว่าอะไร?

            แชร์ลูกโซ่ ธุรกิจกลลวงที่ถ้าได้ยินทุกคนก็ต้องร้องอ้ออย่างแน่นอน รู้หรือไม่ คำว่า “แชร์ลูกโซ่” ภาษาอังกฤษเรียกว่าอะไร นึกออกไหมหรือคำนี้อาจเป็นคำศัพท์ใหม่ภาษาอังกฤษอีกหนึ่งคำที่เรายังไม่รู้ วันนี้เราจึงนำคำศัพท์เกี่ยวกับธุรกิจแชร์ลูกโซ่ มาฝากกัน

Ponzi scheme แปลว่า แชร์ลูกโซ่

แชร์ลูกโซ่ คือ ธุรกิจกลลวงที่หลอกล่อให้คนนำเงินจำนวนหนึ่งเข้ามาลงทุน และได้รับผลตอบแทนมากกว่าที่จ่ายไป โดยมีข้อตกลงที่ทำให้คนคิดว่าเป็นการลงทุนที่มีความเสี่ยงน้อย แต่ได้รับผลกำไรสูงหลายหลายเท่าของเงินลงทุน

Ponzi scheme (n.) = an investment scam that promises big profits with little risk, older investors profit from money from new investors, but when new investors can no longer be attracted the whole thing collapses and all the later investors lose their money.

ยกตัวอย่าง

He
used the investors’ retirement savings to conduct a Ponzi scheme.

Ponzi scheme กลลวงนี้มีที่มา

โดยแชร์ลูกโซ่มีต้นกำเนิดในช่วงหลังสงครามโลกครั้งที่หนึ่ง โดยชายผู้หนึ่งนามว่า Chales Ponzi ชาวอิตาลี (มองออกยัง Ponzi คือเจ้าพ่อที่ให้กำเนิดวงการแชร์ลูกโซ่) จึงเป็นที่มาของคำว่า Ponzi scheme เขามองเห็นโอกาสในการสร้างเงินจากความค่าเงินยุโรปที่ตกต่ำลง ภาษาอังกฤษเรียกว่า Arbitrage การหากำไรจากระหว่างเงินยุโรปและเงินดอลลาร์ โดยนาย พอนซี่ ใช้หลักการง่าย ๆ ในการชักชวนคนมาลงทุนกับเค้า โดยจ่ายเงินเพียงคนละ 100 เหรียญ โดยรับประกันผลตอบแทนเป็น 2 เท่าในเดือนถัดไป ….เมื่อหมดเดือนแรก ก็แค่หลอกลวงนักลงทุนให้เข้ามาลงทุนอีก 4 คน เพื่อนำเงินไปคืน สองคนแรกในเดือนแรก เข้าคอนเซป “แชร์ลูกโซ่” ที่แท้ทรู เมื่อมีคนรู้ข่าวถึงตัวเลขที่นักลงทุนได้รับ ทำให้ธุรกิจแชร์ลูโซ่ขยายตัวออกไปกว้างมากขึ้น โดยกลลวงครั้งนี้ ทำให้นายพอนซี่ สร้างมูลค่าความเสียถึง 20 ล้านเหรียญ ตีเป็นคิดไทยประมาณ 600,170,000.00 บาท เห็นยอดเงินแล้ว ลมแทบจับ พอนซี่ นายมันแน่ แน่มาตลอด แต่สุดท้ายก็ไม่ก็ไม่รอดอยู่ดี เพราะศาลตัดสินจำคุกนายพอนซี

  ข้อคิดของเรื่องนี้คือ การให้สัญญาในสถานการณ์ที่เป็นไม่ได้ มันคือการโกหก และการทำธุรกิจจากการหลอกลวงย่อมไม่ยั่งยืน สุดท้ายก็เกม…

Scheme แปลว่า กลโกง แผนหลอกลวง 

Scheme
(n.) an organized plan for doing something, especially something dishonest or
illegal that will bring a good result for you

ยกตัวอย่าง

She’s
come up with some amazing scheme to double her income. หล่อนคิดกลลวงสุดทึ่งเพื่อเพิ่มรายได้เป็นสองเท่า

Pyramid scheme แปลว่า แชร์ลูกโซ่ ธุรกิจกลลวงที่มีวิธีการเช่นเดียวกับ Ponzi scheme 

Pyramid
scheme (n.) = a way of deceiving investors (= people giving money to a company
hoping to get more back) in which money that a company receives from new
customers is not invested to their advantage, but is used instead to pay debts
owed to existing customers

ยกตัวอย่าง 

The Criminal Court on Friday sentenced Phudit Kittitradilok, 34, to a total of 20 years in jail for his pyramid scheme tricking about 2,600 victims out of 574 million baht.

เมื่อวันศุกร์ที่ผ่านมาศาลอาญาพิพากษาให้นายภูดิท
กิตติดิลก อายุ 34 ปีจำคุกรวม 20
ปีจากคดีแชร์ลูกโซ่ หลอกเหยื่อ 2,600 ราย เป็นเงิน 574
ล้านบาท

  • Criminal Court (n.) ศาลอาญา
  • Trick (n.) แปลว่า กลอุบาย ฉ้อฉล
  • victim (n.) แปลว่า เหยื่อ

ทดสอบความเข้าใจ

  1. “People giving money to a company hoping to get more back” What is the definition of this sentence?

A. Pyramid scheme

B. Trick

2. เหตุใดจึงเรียก แชร์ลูกโซ่ ว่า Ponzi scheme?

A. เป็นชื่อของผู้ริเริ่มทำแชร์ลูกโซ

B. แชร์ลูกโว่เกิดที่แรกที่เมือง Ponzi ณ อิตาลี

3. แชร์ลูกโซ่เริ่มขึ้นจากการ
หาผลกำไรระหว่างค่าเงินยุโรป และ ค่าเงินดอลล่า
กระบวนการนี้ภาษาอังกฤษเรียกว่าอะไร

A. Pyramid scheme

B. Arbitrage

เฉลย

  1. A         2. A     3. B


คำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษ เรื่องสัตว์ต่างๆ l พร้อมรูปและคำอ่าน l คำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษในชีวิตประจำวัน


วีดีโอสอนคำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษที่เกี่ยวกับสัตว์ต่างๆ มาพร้อมกับรูปสัตว์ คำอ่าน คำแปล เหมาะสำหรับผู้ที่ต้องการเรียนรู้คำศัพท์เกี่ยวกับสัตว์ต่างๆ เรียนรู้คำศัพท์ต่างๆ

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูความรู้เพิ่มเติมที่นี่

คำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษ เรื่องสัตว์ต่างๆ l พร้อมรูปและคำอ่าน l คำศัพท์ภาษาอังกฤษในชีวิตประจำวัน

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……………………………………….
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นักเรียนจะได้ยินเสียงประโยคสนทนาภาษาอังกฤษสั้นๆที่ใช้บ่อยในชีวิตประจำ 2 ครั้ง (แบบไม่มีซับ) แล้วหลังจากนั้นก็ได้ยินอีกครั้งแบบมีซับ
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ฝึกพูด 100 ประโยคสนทนาภาษาอังกฤษพื้นฐาน ในชีวิตประจำวัน
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NEOO6wgqZMw\u0026t=837s
ฝึกพูดภาษาอังกฤษ ประโยคสั้นๆง่ายๆ ใช้ได้จริงในชีวิตประจำวัน miniconversation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mdqpBLMEkA
Playlist ฝึกพูดบทสนทนาภาษาอังกฤษคล่องด้วยตนเอง: ระดับ Beginner (พื้นฐานในชีวิตประจำวัน)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLMfgvKgVmGD7V56x_zgAIPsF0fdrLmF5x

สนใจเรียนคอร์สสนทนาภาษาอังกฤษกับ Kru.First
ดูรายละเอียดเพิ่มเติมได้ที่
https://www.krufirst.com
หรือสอบถามเพิ่มเติมได้ที่
Line ID: @englishkrufirst

ฝึกฟังภาษาอังกฤษ สำหรับผู้เริ่มต้น ในชีวิตประจำวัน EP.1

เพิกเฉย ละเลย เขลา ภาษาอังกฤษว่าอย่างไร


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Twitter ซูชิง: http://twitter.com/Sue_Ching

เพิกเฉย ละเลย เขลา ภาษาอังกฤษว่าอย่างไร

นักร้องสาวอินโดฯ ถูกงูจงอางฉกขณะโชว๋ l one news


รับชมช่อง one ที่หมายเลข 31
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นักร้องสาวอินโดฯ ถูกงูจงอางฉกขณะโชว๋ l one news

นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูบทความเพิ่มเติมในหมวดหมู่LEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGE

ขอบคุณมากสำหรับการดูหัวข้อโพสต์ ผู้ถูกล่า ภาษาอังกฤษ

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